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Kelp Powder (Ascophyllum Nodosum) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Kelp Powder (Ascophyllum Nodosum)BASE / GENERAL
Kelps are large seaweeds belonging to the Brown Algae (Phaeophyceae) in the order Laminariales. Kelp grows in underwater "Forests" (kelp forests) in shallow oceans, and is thought to have appeared in the Miocene, 23 to 5 million years ago. The organisms require nutrient-rich water with temperatures between 6 and 14 °C. They are known for their high growth rate - the genera Macrocystis and Nereocystis can grow as fast as half a metre a day, ultimately reaching 30 to 80 metres.

Kelp, also known as Brown Algae, is an herb that comes from deep under the sea. It is, essentially, Seaweed that thrives on sunlight and takes in the host of nutrients and minerals present in the water around it.

Growth occurs at the base of the meristem, where the blades and stipe meet. Growth may be limited by grazing. The kelp life cycle involves a diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte stage. The haploid phase begins when the mature organism releases many spores, which then germinate to become maleor female gametophytes. Sexual reproduction then results in the beginning of the diploid sporophyte stage, which will develop into a mature individual.

Some of the earliest evidence for human use of marine resources, coming from Middle Stone Age sites in South Africa, includes the harvesting of foods such as abalones, limpets, and mussels associated with Kelp forest habitats.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-19)

Rose Petals ☸ Ingredients ☸ Medicine / Health

Rose Petals are high in nutrients and especially high in polyphenols, an important antioxidant.

You can use wild or domesticated Rses. First, you want to be sure that they haven't been sprayed with harmful chemicals.

Secondly, your best bet is to use Roses that are aromatic. Roses that have no smell may not be as good for medicine or food, so use your nose to find the best Roses.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-19)

German Chamomile Flower (Matricaria Recutita) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

German Chamomile Flower (Matricaria Recutita)BASE / GENERAL
Matricaria Chamomilla (Matricaria Recutita), commonly known as Chamomile (also spelled Camomile), German Chamomile, Hungarian Chamomile (Kamilla), Wild Chamomile or scented Mayweed,is an annual plant of the composite family Asteraceae. Matricaria Chamomilla is the most popular source of the herbal product Chamomile, although other species are also used as Chamomile.

The word Chamomile comes from the Greek "Chamaimēlon" meaning "Earth-Apple", which is derived from "Chamai" meaning "On the Ground" and "Mēlon" meaning "Apple". It is so called because of the apple - like scent of the plant.

Matricaria  Chamomilla has a branched, erect and smooth stem, which grows to a height of 15 - 60 cm. The long and narrow leaves are pinnate and tripinnate. The flowers are borne in paniculata flower heads (Capitulo). The white ray florets are furnished with a ligule, while the disc florets are yellow. The hollow receptacle is swollen and lacks scales. The flowers bloom in early to midsummer, and have a strong, aromatic smell. it will live more than two years.

Matricaria Chamomilla can be found near populated areas all over Europe and temperate Asia, and it has been widely introduced in temperate North America and Australia. It often grows near roads, around landfills, and in cultivated fields as a weed, because the seeds require open soil to survive. German Chamomile will tolerate many soils, but prefers a sandy, well-drained soil with a pH of 7,0 - 7,5 and full sun.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-15)

Bitter Orange Blossom (Citrus Aurantium) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Bitter Orange Blossom (Citrus Aurantium)BASE / GENERAL
The sour orange is native to southeastern Asia. Natives of the South Sea Islands, especially Fiji, Samoa, and Guam, believe the tree to have been brought to their shores in prehistoric times. Arabs are thought to have carried it to Arabia in the 9th Century. It was reported to be growing in Sicily in 1002 A.D., and it was cultivated around Seville, Spain, at the end of the 12th Century.

For 500 years, it was the only orange in Europe and it was the first orange to reach the New World.

Citrus Aurantium is an evergreen tree growing to 9 m by 6 m. It is in leaf 12 - Janua. It is in flower from April to June. The flowers arehermaphrodite (have bothmale and femaleorgans) and are pollinated by apomictic, insects.The plant is self-fertile.

The tree ranges in height from less than 3 m to 9 m, is more erect and has a more compact crown than the Sweet Orange, has smooth, brown bark, green twigs, angular when young, and flexible, not very sharp, thorns from 2,5 - 8 cm long.

The highly fragrant flowers, borne singly or in small clusters in the leaf axils, are about 3,75 cm wide, with 5 white, slender, straplike, recurved, widely-separated petals surrounding a tuft of up to 24 yellow stamens. From 5 to 12% of the flowers are male.

Its scent is sweet, honeyed and somewhat metallic with green and spicey facets.

Orange Blossom can be described as smelling sweeter, warmer and more floral than Neroli. The difference between how Neroli and Orange Blossom smell and why they are referred to with different names, is a result of the process of extraction that is used to obtain the oil from the blooms. Neroli is extracted by steam distillation and Orange Blossom is extracted via a process of enfleurage.

By the end of the 17th century, Anne Marie Orsini, duchess of Bracciano and princess of Nerola, Italy, introduced the essence of Bitter Orange tree as a fashionable fragrance by using it to perfume her gloves and her bath. Since then, the term "Neroli" has been used to describe this essence. Neroli has a refreshing and distinctive, spicy aroma with sweet and flowery notes.

The largest Bigarade - tree plantations are to be found in the South of France, in Calabria and in Sicily. The centre of the industry of Neroli oil is the South of France, where the Bitter Orange is extensively cultivated for that purpose alone.

The tree requires a dry soil with a southern aspect. It bears flowers three years after grafting, increasing every year until it reaches its maximum, when it is about twenty years old. The quantity depends on the age and situation, a full - grown tree yielding on an average 50 to 60 lb. of blossoms.One hundred Orange trees, at the age of ten years, will occupy nearly an acre of land, and will produce during the season about 2,200 lb. of Orange Flowers.

The flowering season is in May and the flowersare gathered two or three times a week, after sunrise. When the autumn is mild and atmospheric conditions are favourable, flowering takes place in October, and this supplementary harvest lasts until January, or till a frosty morning stops the flowering. These autumn flowers have much less perfume than those of the spring and the custom is to value them at only one-half the price of May flowers.

The flowers yield nectar for Honeybees.

Orange Petals
are often associated with marriage, purity and brides, as brides traditionally wore Orange Buds in their hair.

Orange Flowers
have been used in wedding traditions since the times of ancient China. In Chinese tradition, Orange Flowers were omens of purity, innocence and moral virtue, but also a symbol of fruitfulness and fertility. Brides of all nations have always worn some kind of a floral embellishment on their wedding day, and the tradition of using orange flowers has spread from the East to Europe, during the times of the Crusaders.

Maidens have used fresh Orange Blossoms to decorate their hair on a wedding day, and this custom was so widespread that that the expression "To Gather Orange Blossoms" took completely different connotation by starting to mean "To Seek a Wife".

The fruitof the Bitter Orange (Citrus Aurantium) is very similar to the Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis), but is smaller, with a diameter of only seven to eight centimetres. The sphere is slightly flattened and the skin is thicker and more dimpled than that of the Sweet Orange. The fruit flesh tastes sour, while the peel and the skin surrounding the fruit segments have a strong bitter taste. Around the Mediterranean the ripe Bitter Oranges are harvested in January and February.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-15)

Royal Jasmine Blossoms (Jasminum Grandiflorum) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Royal Jasmine Blossoms (Jasminum Grandiflorum)BASE / GENERAL
It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in warm temperate and subtropical regions. The term Jasmine is probably derived from Persian word Yasmine meaning "Fragrance", which is adopted in Arabic as Yasym given to Jasmine Flowers.

Jasminum Grandiflorum, also known variously as the Spanish Jasmine, Royal Jasmine, Catalonian Jasmine, is a species of Jasmine native to South Asia (Nepal, Kashmir, and Northern Pakistan), the Arabian Peninsula (Oman, Saudi Arabia), Northeast Africa (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan), the African Great Lakes (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda), and the Yunnan and Sichuan regions of China.

The plant is known as "Saman Pichcha" or "Pichcha" in Sri Lanka. Buddhist and Hindu temples use these flowers in abundance.

It is a scrambling deciduous shrub growing to 2 - 4 m tall. The leaves are opposite, 5 - 12 cm long, pinnate with 5 - 11 leaflets. The flowers are produced in open cymes, the individual flowers are white having corolla with a basal tube 13 - 25 mm long and five lobes 13 - 22 mm long. The flower's fragrance is unique and sweet. The flowers open at night, and close in the morning.

The bulk of the flowers are used as such in garlands and decorative branches for religious offerings, and a small quantity is used for production of oils and attars. 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-15)

Damask Rose Flower (Rosa Damascena) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Damask Rose Flower (Rosa Damascena)BASE / GENERAL
Rose is the king of flowers and Damask Rose is classified in Old Garden Roses. The origion of Damask Rose is Iran and the Middle East region and it is the national flower of  Iran.

There are evidences that Rosaceae family is an ancient plant. Some fossils of rose are found in America that are 30 million years old.

The origin of Damask Rose is the Middle East and some evidences indicate that the origin of Rose wather is Iran, but the origin of its fragrant oil and extracts is Greece. This plant is cultivated in alll over the world including Iran, Europe, Bulgaria, Turkey and India.

Rosa Damascena, more commonly known as the Damask Rose, or sometimes as the Rose of Castile, is a Rose Hybrid, derived from Rosa Gallica and Rosa Moschata. Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa Fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask Rose.

The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for Rose oil, Rose otto, Rose absolute used in perfumery and to make rose water and "Rose concrete". The flower petals are also edible.

The Damask Rose is a deciduous shrub growing to 2,2 m tall, the stems densely armed with stout, curved prickles and stiff bristles. The leaves are pinnate, with five leaflets. The Roses are a light to moderate pink to light red. The relatively small flowers grow in groups. The bush has an informal shape.

Rosa Damascena
is best cultivated in hedge rows to help protect the blooms from wind and to facilitate ease of picking. Gathering the flowersis quite labor - intensive as it must be done by hand. There are about twenty to forty days per year when harvesting occurs, depending on the type of Rosa Damascena cultivation in the region.

The Crusader Robert  de  Brie is  often  given  credit  for  bringing  this  rose  from Persia to Europe sometime  between 1254 and 1276.  The  name  refers  to Damascus, Syria, a  major  city  in  the region. Other stories say the Romans brought the Rose to England, and a third account says that Henry VIII's physician gave him a Damask Rose as a present, around 1540.

For centuries, the Damascus Rose (Rosa Damascena) has been considered a symbol of beauty and love. The fragrance of the Rose has been captured and preserved in the form of Rose Water by an ancient  method  that  can  be  traced  back  to  biblical  times  in  the  Middle  East,  and  later  to  the Indian subcontinent. An Iranian doctor, Avicenna, is credited with the discovery of the process for  extracting  Rose  Water  from  Rose  Petals  in  the early 11 century.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-15)

Dry Rose Petals (Rosa Damascena) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Dry Rose Petals (Rosa Damascena)BASE / GENERAL
The distinctive scent of the Rose derived from acyclic monoterpene alcohols, geraniol (up to 75%), citronellol (20%) and nerol (20%), and long-chain hydrocarbons like nonadecane or heneicosane(up to 10%).

An important trace component of Rose oil is beta-damascenone. Even though this chemical makes up only 0.01% of the weight of the Rose, its presence or absence determines the appeal of the Rose.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-15)

Pomegranate Seed Oil (Punica Granatum) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Pomegranate Seed Oil (Punica Granatum)BASE / GENERAL
Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) member of the family Punicaceae, are one of the most ancient edible fruits. Corresponding to 55 - 60% of the whole fruit weight, of which 75 - 85% consists of juice and 25 - 15% consists of seed.

The Pomegranate, botanical name Punica Granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between 5 and 8 m tall. A shrub or small tree growing 6 to 10 m high, the pomegranate has multiple spiny branches, and is extremely long - lived, with some specimens in France surviving for 200 years.

The edible fruit is a berry, between a Lemon and a Grapefruit in size 5 - 12 cm in diameter with a rounded shape and thick, reddish skin. The number of seeds in a Pomegranate can vary from 200 to about 1400 seeds. Each seed has a surrounding water - laden pulp. The seeds are embedded in a white, spongy, astringent membrane.

The Pomegranate is considered to have originated in the region of modern day Iran, and has been cultivated since ancient times throughout the Mediterranean region and northern India. It was introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769.

The fruit a long tradition of cultivation and back to ancient times. Numerous cultures regard the Pomegranate as a symbol of fertility due to its high number of seed, ranging from 150 - 200 to up to 1000.

Today, it is widely cultivated throughout the Middle East and Caucasus region, northern Africa and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, and the drier parts of southeast Asia.

The name pomegranate derives from medieval Latin Pōmum "Apple" and Grānātum "Seeded".

The precious golden yellow to reddish oil is carefully extracted from dried Pomegranate kernels. It takes over 200 pounds of fresh Pomegranates seeds to produce just one pound of Pomegranate seed oil.

A relatively stable oil. Pomegranate seed oil is an extremely rich and nutritious oil. This highly prized oil, which is naturally high in flavonoids and punicic acid, is remarkable for the skin and has numerous dietary benefits as well.

Chemical structure:

Pomegranate seeds yeild a drying oil which contains pucinic acid forming upto 72% of the fatty acid.

Pucinic acid is conjugated triene and and geometrical isomer of elaostearic acid. Oil possesses antibacterial properties. Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) is now well known for antioxidant properties.

Free Fatty Acids - 2,8
Peroxide Value - 3,60
Specific Gravity - 0,939
Saponification Value - 190

Fatty Acids:

Linoleic - 7,1
Oleic - 6,2
Palmitic - 3,1
Punicic - 78,0
Stearic - 2,7

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-14)

Arenarium Plant (Helichrysum Italicum) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Arenarium Plant (Helichrysum Italicum)BASE / GENERAL
The genus Helichrysum consists of an estimated 600 species, in the Sunflower family Asteraceae. The type species is Helichrysum Orientale. The name is derived from the Greek words Helisso (to Turn Around) and Chrysos (gold).

It occurs in Africa, Madagascar, Australasia and Eurasia. The plants may be annuals, herbaceous perennials or shrubs, growing to a height of 60 - 90 cm.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-14)

Rose Petals ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

In our world we have many species of Roses, so information will be presented in general side. We must have in mind that we are talking about organic plant withoutpollution.

A rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species and thousands of cultivars.  Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant.

The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol. Roses are a favored subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements.

The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin Rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan.

Bulgaria produces about 70% of all rose oil in the world. Other significant producers are Morocco, Iran and Turkey. Harvesting of flowers is done by hand in the morning before sunrise and material is distilled the same day.

There are three main methods of extracting the oil from the Rose Petals material:

Steam distillation, which produces an oil called Rose Otto or attar of Roses.
Solvent extraction, which results in an oil called Rose absolute.
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, yielding an essential oil that may be marketed as either an absolute or as a CO2 extract.

Chemical structure:

The most common chemical compounds present in Rose oil are:

citronellol, geraniol, nerol, linalool, phenyl ethyl alcohol, farnesol, stearoptene, α - pinene, β - pinene, α - terpinene, limonene, p - cymene, camphene, β - caryophyllene, neral, citronellyl acetate, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate, eugenol, methyl eugenol, rose oxide, α - damascenone, β - damascenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, rhodinyl acetate and phenyl ethyl formate.

The key flavor compounds that contribute to the distinctive scent of rose are beta - damascenone, beta - damascone, beta - ionone, and Rose oxide

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-14)

Rose Petals ☸ Ingredients ☸ Food / Cooking

The fruits of many species have significant levels of Vitamins and have been used as a food supplement.

Rose flowers are used as food, also usually as flavouring or to add their scent to food. Other minor uses include candied Rose Petals.

Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high Vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make Rose hip syrup.

Rose Petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas.

In France there is much use of Rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of Rose Petals. In the United States, this French Rose syrup is used to make rose scones and marshmallows.

Rose creams (Rose flavoured fondant covered in chocolate, often topped with a crystallised Rose Petal) are a traditional English confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the UK.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-14)

Ginger Essential Oil (Zingiber Officinale) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Ginger Essential Oil (Zingiber Officinale)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Dried Root

Color: Golden yallow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Spicy, warm, woody, with a deep earthy undertone.

Ginger is a flowering plant in the family Zingiberaceae whose rhizome, Ginger root or Simply Ginger. It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers. Every year it shoots up a stalk with narrow spear-shaped leaves, as well as white or yellow flowers growing directly from the root.

 Ginger is indigenous to southern China, and was spread eventually to the Spice Islands, other parts of Asia and subsequently to West Africa and the Caribbean.

Ginger was exported to Europe via India in the first century AD as a result of the lucrative spice trade. India is now the largest producer of Ginger. Ginger comes from a Sanskrit word “Srngaveram” meaning “Horn Root”.

Ginger was one of the first products to travel the spice route from Asia to Europe, where both the Greeks and Romans made extensive use of it.

The aromas of the dried root distillation and fresh root distillation are quite different. The fresh root oil has a bright note in comparison, where the dried root oil has the traditional grounding rooty notes to the aroma. Both are very pleasant.

Ginger essential oil
has an aroma that is a medium to strong scent that is warm, woody and spicy. It has undertones of Lemon and pepper with a middle to base note. It is a stimulating and uplifting aroma.

West African women in Senegal weave belts of Ginger to bring back their partners sexual interest.

Chemical strucute:

The essential oil has various chemical constituents including the following: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, y-terpineol, nerol, neral, geraniol, geranial, geranyl acetate, b-bisabolene and zingiberene.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-07)

Calendula Essential Oil (Calendula Officinalis) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Calendula Essential Oil (Calendula Officinalis)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Calendula officinalis

Common Method of Extraction:
Carbon Dioxide distillation (SCO2 distillation) / CO2 Total Extract

Part Typically Used:

Red / orange


Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma: Musky, woody, rotten, rather like the flowers themselves (waxy, warm and green/herbaceous scent)

Calendula or pot marigold, is a genus of about 15–20 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family Asteraceae. They are native to southwestern Asia, western Europe, Macaronesia, and the Mediterranean.

The name calendula is a modern Latin diminutive of calendae, meaning "little calendar", "little clock" or possibly "little weather-glass". The common name "marigold" refers to the Virgin Mary.

Romans and Greeks used the golden calendula in many rituals and ceremonies, sometimes wearing crowns or garlands made from the flowers. One of its nicknames is "Mary's Gold", use in early Catholic events in some countries. Calendula flowers are sacred flowers in India and have been used to decorate the statues of Hindu deities since early times. Garlands of calendula were once attached to door handles to keep evil, particularly contagion, out of the house.

Calendula plant grows to a height of 60cm, has light green leaves, and daisy - like flowers which vary in colour from bright orange to yellow, and can bloom from May until the first frosts.

Calendula essential oil is distilled from the deep orange colored flowers. This SCO2 distillation is what would be considered the finest extracts available of this flower.

Chemical structure:

The principal constituents: Flavonoids, saponin, triterpene alcohol and a bitter principle.

The flowers of calendula officinalis contain flavonol glycosides, triterpene oligoglycosides, oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, saponins, and a sesquiterpene glucoside.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-06)

Cajeput Essential Oil (Melaleuca Cajeputi) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Cajeput Essential Oil (Melaleuca Cajeputi)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Melaleuca cajeputi

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Fresh leaves and twigs

Color: Pale yellow

Consistency: Light

Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma:
extremely pungent, has the odor of a mixture of turpentine and camphor.

The name “cajeput” is derived from its Indonesian name, “kayu putih” or "white wood".

Cajeput essential oil, Melaleuca cajuputi, also called White tea tree essential oil, White tree essential oil, and Swamp tea tree essential oil, is closely related to other members of the Melaleuca group, notably eucalyptus, niaouli, and tea tree.

Cajeput oil is a volatile oil obtained by distillation from the leaves of the myrtaceous tree Melaleuca leucadendra.This tree is also called the Melaleuca cajeputi and the Cajeput oil tree. The trees yielding the oil are found throughout Maritime Southeast Asia and over the hotter parts of the Australian continent. The majority of the oil is produced on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.

This tree has thick white wood. It is found in Australia, the islands between Australia and Malaysia and in Indonesia. Other species of Melaleuca may also be used to make cajeput oil, like Melaleuca minor. The oil is distilled from the leaves and twigs of this tree. However, before distillation, the mixture is fermented for some time. Since the oil is steam distilled, it is organic and retains its original nutrients.

The flexible trunk has a white spongy bark that flakes off easily. The trees, and especially the essential oils, are held in high regard throughout the East.

The oil is prepared from leaves collected on a hot dry day, macerated in water, and distilled after fermenting for a night.

Also sometimes referred to as the white tea tree, the cajeput tree originated from the Malayan coastal plains. An evergreen, vigorous growing tree, it can reach 30 meters and has a whitish spongy bark with a crooked trunk. It is known in ancient India as Kayaputi and was also revered in the East for all its uses.

Chemical structure:

The main chemical components of Cajuput oil include a-pinene, b-pinene, myrcene, a-terpinene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol and a-terpineol.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-06)

Cajeput Essential Oil (Melaleuca Cajeputi) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Medicine / Health

Cajeput Essential Oil (Melaleuca Cajeputi)MEDICINE / HEALTH
Children: Avoid topical use on children under 6.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-06)

Allspice Essential Oil (Pimenta Dioica) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Allspice Essential Oil (Pimenta Dioica)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Pimenta dioica

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Leaves and fruits

Yellow - brown

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Warm, spicy, woody scent with a mild camphor-like note, like a combination of cinnamon, clove and pepper.

Allspice is so called pimento because it tastes like a combination of cloves, juniper berries, cinnamon and pepper.

The oil has a sweet, spicy, clove - like odor, fruitier than the pimenta leaf oil which is less expensive. It has a fresh and clean top note and a long - lasting, sweet, balsamic - spicy body note with hints of tea - like undertones.

In perfumery, Allspice oil is typically used as a modifier in men’s fragrances, particularly in spicy fougeres and in oriental types.

Allspice, also called Jamaica pepper, Pepper, Myrtle pepper, Pimenta, Turkish Yenibahar, Pimento, English pepper or Newspice, is the dried unripe fruit of Pimenta dioica, a midcanopy tree native to the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, and Central America, now cultivated in many warm parts of the world.

The name "Allspice" was coined as early as 1621 by the English, who thought it combined the flavour of Cinnamon, Nutmeg, and Cloves.

The tree begins to fruit when three years old and is in full bearing after four years. The flowers appear in June, July and August and are quickly succeeded by the berries.

The special qualities of the fruit reside in the rind of the berries. It loses its aroma on ripening, owing to loss of volatile oil, and the berries are therefore collected as soon as they have attained their full size, in July and August, but while unripe and green.

It begins to produce fruit in its third year, with each fruit containing two kidney-shaped green seeds, which turn glossy black when ripe.

The Allspice tree, classified as an evergreen shrub, reaches heights between 10 and 18 m. Allspice can be a small, scrubby tree, quite similar to the Bay laurel in size and form. It can also be a tall, canopy tree, sometimes grown to provide shade for Coffee trees planted underneath it. It can be grown outdoors in the tropics and subtropics with normal garden soil and watering.

Allspice was encountered by Christopher Columbus on the island of Jamaica during his second voyage to the New World. It was introduced into European and Mediterranean cuisines in the 16th century. It continued to be grown primarily in Jamaica, though a few other Central American countries produced Allspice in comparatively small quantities.

Despite its popularity, cultivation outside its native region has been uncommon and often unsuccessful. Allspice thrives in warm climates and grows almost entirely in the western hemisphere. Due to its limited range, it is not well known in many parts of the world.

Chemical structure:

The main chemical components of Allspice oil are eugenol, menthyl eugenol, cineol, phellandrene and caryophyllene.

Allspice fruits contain 2 to 5% essential oil. The main components of the essential oil areeugenol, eugenol methyl ether, myrcene, 1,8-cineol and alpha-phellandrene. The eugenol content of essential oil of Jamaican allspice is 65 to 90%, but the eugenol content of Mexican allspice is much less.

Because of the high eugenol content (50-75%), Allspice oil is one of a handful of essential oils with a density slightly greater than water. There have been reports of a methyl eugenol chemotype of this oil as well, but the typical berry oil will contain 10-25%methyl eugenol anyway. 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-04)

Fragonia Essential Oil (Agonis Fragrans) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Fragonia Essential Oil (Agonis Fragrans)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Agonis fragrans

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distillastion

Part Typically Used:
Flowers and leaves

Color: Pale yallow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Sweet, medicinal aroma with floral undertones.

"A pleasant fresh cineolic odour with a hint of a citrus note (which becomes more pronounced after a few minutes) mixed with a slight spicy Cinnamon tonality and sweet balsamic undertones. The dry down is very faint being sweet, soapy and woody balsamic".

Fragonia is produced in Australia and is still a relatively new essential oil. It is becoming very popular among aromatherapists because it has similar property of Tea Tree but has a citrus, spicy floral note.

Fragonia is a shrub reaching approximately 2,4m in height. It has erect flowering branches and thick rigid leaves along with small clusters of five white petalled flowers and a pretty pink centre. Flowering takes place between January and May typically. It is found on the south coast of Western Australia. Recognised as coarse Tea Tree by the cut flower industry, it has only recently been given its common name, which reflects the fragrant nature of both the foliage and the extracted oil.

Fragonia is grown in plantations around south west Western Australia.The harvesting is done mechanically, the branchlets and leaves are cut, the leaves are collected and then placed into a stainless steel boiler. The trees are harvested and are then steam distilled for around 1 to 1,5 hours.

Chemical structure:

This essential oil is a perfect ratio oxides - monoterpenes and monoterpenols. It is a gentle oil.

It is an extremely balanced oil, with the oxides (cineol, which gives Eucalyptus oil its distinctive aroma), monoterpines (alpha pinene), and monoterpenols (linalol) in a near perfect 1:1:1 ratio.

In working with Fragonia, it is important to know the chemical constituents and the properties associated with them. Possible uses for these constituents can be found in many publications, including Mark Webb's book "Bush Sense", and are as follows:

Monoterpenes (30-39%):

a-pinene - anti-inflammatory
limonene - anticancer, antiseptic, bactericide, expectorant, fungastatic, sedative, viricide

Oxides (26-32%):

1,8-cineole - antibronchitic, anticatarrh, antiseptic, antitussive, CNS stimulant, expectorant and respiratory anti-inflamatory. Increases dermal uptake by up to 95 times.


linalool - antiseptic (5 x phenol), bactericide, fungicide, perfumery, sedative, spasmolytic, viricide
terpenen-4-ol - antiallergic, antifungal, antihistomanic
a-terpineol - antiallergenic, antiasthmatic, antiseptic, antitussive, bactericide, expectorant
geraniol - antiseptic, cancer preventative, candidicide, fungacide, perfumery, sedative.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-04)

Geranium Essential Oil (Pelargonium Graveolens) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Geranium Essential Oil (Pelargonium Graveolens) BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Pelargonium graveolens

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Flowers, leaves

Ranges in Color From Clear to Amber


Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Floral, fresh, sweet, with a fruity note.

Common names include Rose Geranium, Old Fashion Rose Geranium, and Rose-Scent Geranium. Pelargonium Graveolens is also known by taxonomic synonyms "Geranium Terebinthinaceum Cav."

The true Pelargonium Graveolens is an uncommon species in the Pelargonium genus, which is native to South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Plants sometimes cultivated under this name and also as Pelargonium "Graveolens" differ from wild specimens and are of hybrid origin.

Geranium is a perennial shrub with pointy, serrated leaves and small, pink, aromatic flowers. Like Rose, there are many species and cultivars of Geranium (in a variety of colors) but Pelargonium Graveolens is generally the species used for aromatherapy purposes.

Pelargonium Graveolens cultivars have a wide variety of smells, including Rose, Citrus, Mint, Coconut and Nutmeg, as well as various fruits. However, the most commercially important varieties are those with Rose scents.

Rose Geranium has a Rose - like aroma and, as an essential oil in aromatherapy, it is often used to either adulterate rose oil or as a substitute for Rose oil. However, both plants are botanically different.

There are about 700 different varieties of the plant, yet only 10 supply essential oil in viable quantities, as the normal garden geranium produce far too little oil for extraction.

Pelargonium is a Greek word derived from Palargos meaning "Stork". The French Chemist Recluz was the first to distil the leaves of Geranium in 1819.

Pelargonium Graveolens is native to South Africa. During the 17th century, it was introduced to Europe and is now cultivated in such areas such as Spain, Italy and France due to it's fragrance which is sold commercially.

Chemical structure:

The essential oil is composed of various chemical constituentsand includes a-pinene, myrcene, limonene, menthone, linalool, geranyl acetate, citronellol, geraniol and geranyl butyrate.

A modern analysis listed the presence of over 50 organic compounds in the essential oil of  Pelargonium Graveolens from an Australian source. Analyses of Indian Geranium oils indicated a similar phytochemical profile, and showed that the major constituents (in terms of % composition) were citronellol + nerol and geraniol.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-22)

Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula Angustifolia) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula Angustifolia)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Lavandula angustifolia

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam Distilled

Part Typically Used:

Color: Clear


Perfumery Note:
Middle / Top

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Very fine green floral, sweet herbaceous, penetrating, clear and fresh.

The species name Angustifolia is Latin for "Narrow leaf".

Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender or English Lavender also common Lavender, True Lavender, Narrow - Leaved Lavender), formerly Lavandula Officinalis, is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to the western Mediterranean, primarily the Pyrenees and other mountains in northern Spain.

The name is derived from the Latin word "Lavera" which means "To wash" and the Romans used it frequently in their bath routine, and it is said to have been introduced by them into England, where it soon was a firm favorite.

It was a favorite for screwing on the floor, since it released an aroma when walked upon and it is often used these days in toilet water, as an insecticide or in sachets to be placed between linen.

It is a strongly aromatic shrub growing as high as 1 to 2 metres tall. The leaves are evergreen, 2 - 6 centimetres long, and 4 - 6 millimetres broad. The flowers are pinkish - purple (Lavender - coloured), produced on spikes 2 - 8 cm long at the top of slender, leafless stems 10 - 30 cm long.

It is popular for its colourful flowers, its fragrance and its ability to survive with low water consumption. It does not grow well in continuously damp soil. It is fairly tolerant of low temperatures.

Lavandula Angustifolia is the True Lavender. It is produced throughout the world, although France is considered the premier growing region. In the world of essential oils, Lavender is one of the most commonly used due to its versatility and pleasant scent.

Lavender oil is extracted from the flowering tops by steam distillation and yields 1,4 % - 1,6 %.

True Lavender oil, which is obtained by steam distillation of the flowering tops of the plant, is non-toxic and has a full flowery aroma. The Bulgarian grown Lavender has a sweet smell.  The aroma of Lavandin is usually more camphoraceous. Tuscan Lavender has a refreshing topnote.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-22)

Peppermint Essential Oil (Mentha x Piperita) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Peppermint Essential Oil (Mentha x Piperita)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Mentha x piperita

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Part Typically Used:
Leaves and Flowers/Buds

Clear with a Yellow Tinge


Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Minty, strong, reminiscent of peppermint candies, but more concentrated. More fragrant than spearmint. Fresh, very minty, hot, herbaceous, with a vegetative back note.

Note: If you find Peppermint oil to be a bit too intense, you may enjoy working with Spearmint oil.

Peppermint (Mentha × Piperita, also known as Mentha Balsamea Willd) is a Hybrid mint, a cross between Watermint and Spearmint. The plant, indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, is now widespread in cultivation in many regions of the world.

Peppermint is a fast-growing plant, once it sprouts, it spreads very quickly. Being a hybrid, it is usually sterile, producing no seeds and reproducing only vegetatively, spreading by itsrhizomes. If placed, it can grow anywhere, with a few exceptions.

It is a perennial plant growing to 30 - 90 cm tall, with smooth stems, square in cross section. The leaves are from 4 - 9 cm long and 1,5 - 4 cmbroad, dark green with reddish veins, and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. The leaves and stems are usually slightly fuzzy. The flowers are purple, 6 - 8 mm long, with a four - lobed corolla about 5 mm diameter. Flowering is from mid to late summer.

Peppermint Latin name, Mentha Piperita, comes from the Greek Mentha, the name of a mythical nymph thought to have metamorphosed into the plant, and the Latin Piper, meaning Pepper.

MenthaPpiperita has been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to 1000 B.C. and there is evidence that Peppermint has a long history in Europe, China, and Japan.

It is one of the world’s oldest medicinal herbs, and is used in both Eastern and Western traditions. Ancient Greek, Roman and Egyptian cultures used the herb in cooking and medicine.

Peppermint is currently one of the most economically important aromatic and medicinal crops produced in the U.S. The world production of Peppermint oil is about 8000 tons per year 1.

Chemical structure:

Peppermint has a high menthol content. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters, particularly menthyl acetate.

Dried Peppermint typically has 0,3 - 0,4% of volatile oil containing menthol (7 - 48%), menthone (20 - 46%), menthyl acetate (3 - 10%), menthofuran (1 - 17%) and 1,8-cineole (3 - 6%). Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene.

Menthol is  the primary component of the essential oil of Peppermint. It occurs naturally as a colorless crystal or powder. Menthol is mostly responsible for the spasmolytic nature of peppermint.

also contains terpenoids and flavonoids such as eriocitrin, hesperidin and kaempferol 7 - O-rutinoside.

Mild climate stress in the growing conditions of the plant increases the oil content and sesquiterpene levels in the oil.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-20)

Peppermint Essential Oil (Mentha x Piperita) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Medicine / Health

Peppermint Essential Oil (Mentha x Piperita)MEDICINE / HEALTH
Contraindications: Inhalation of large doses of menthol may lead to dizziness, confusion, muscle weakness, nausea and double vision.

Peppermint oil is linked to causing seizures in children. Avoid dermal use on children under 6 years. Do not apply undiluted Peppermint essential oils to the feet, particularly on infants and children under the age of 12.

For more than 100 years, physicians have understood the importance of this, and have used pure Peppermint in the treatment of nasal congestion and sinusitis.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-20)

Peppermint Essential Oil (Mentha x Piperita) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Spiritual Practises

Peppermint Essential Oil (Mentha x Piperita)SPIRITUAL PRACTISES
Adding a few drops of Peppermint to a massage oil or lotion and rubbed on after a Yoga session or enthusiastic hike can do wonders for restoring feelings of comfort and ease.

Peppermint powerfully sharpens mental focus by removing dull and hazy feelings.

As a cooling oil, Peppermint is also extremely effective for taking the edge off of tension. Peppermint's cool and clearing nature makes it ideal for stimulating mental agility and improving concentration for the tasks at hand. It is also effective against worry, grief and heaviness.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-20)

St Johns Wort Essential Oil (Hypericum Perforatum) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

St Johns Wort Essential Oil (Hypericum Perforatum)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Hypericum perforatum

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distilled

Part Typically Used:

Color: Pale yellow


Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Soft, herbal, balsamic.

Hypericum Perforatum, known as Perforate St John's-Wort, Common Saint John's Wort and St John's Wort is a flowering plant of the genus Hypericum. Hypericum Perforatum is indigenous to Europe but has spread worldwide as an invasive species, including to temperate and subtropical regions of Turkey, Ukraine, Russia, the Middle East, India, Canada, the United States and China.

The herbs common name comes from its traditional flowering and harvesting on St John's day, 24 June. The genus name Hypericum is derived from the Greek words Hyper (Above) and Eikon (Picture), in reference to the plant's traditional use in warding off evil by hanging plants over a religious icon in the house during St John's day. The species name perforatum refers to the presence of small oil glands in the leaves that look like windows, which can be seen when they are held against the light.

St John's Wort is a perennial plant with extensive, creeping rhizomes. Its stems are erect, branched in the upper section, and can grow to 1 m high. Its flowers measure up to 2,5 cm across, have five petals, and are colored bright yellow with conspicuous black dots. The flowers appear in broad cymes at the ends of the upper branches, between late spring and early to mid summer.

The flowers and stems of the plant have been used to make red and yellow dyes.

Hypericum species are generally classed as essential oil-poorplants (generally oil yield

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-17)

Tuberose Essential Oil (Polianthes Tuberosa) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Tuberose Essential Oil (Polianthes Tuberosa)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Polianthes tuberosa

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent extraction

Part Typically Used:



Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: White floral, camphor, dewy mushroom and earth, buttery, rubbery and even metallic facets.

Tuberose is not a very popular name in the world of herbal medicines. In fact, it is very popular and priced among perfume manufacturers.

Due to this, Tuberose is popularly known as “Night Queen”, “Mistress of the Night”, or “Raat ki Raani”, as it known in Hindi. It grows well in Central America and India and is in high demand in the countries of the Indian Subcontinent, Middle East, and Africa in order to make perfume.

Members of the closely related genus Manfreda are often called "Tuberoses". In the Philippines, the plant is also known as Azucena, and, while once associated with funerals, it is now used in floral arrangements for other occasions.

The Tuberose is a night-blooming plant native to Mexico, as is every other known species of Polianthes. It grows in elongated spikes up to 45 cm long that produce clusters of fragrant waxy white flowers that bloom from the bottom towards the top of the spike. It has long, bright green leaves clustered at the base of the plant and smaller, clasping leaves along the stem.

Now It is cultivated all over the world for the cut flower trade, but specially in Egypt, China, France and Morocco for its oil.

The Tuberose (Polianthes Tuberosa) is a perennial plant related to the agaves, extracts of which are used as a note in perfumery. The common name derives from the Latin Tuberosa, meaning swollen or Tuberous in reference to its root system. Polianthes means "Many flowers" in Greek. In Mexican Spanish, the flower is called Nardo or Vara de San José, which means "St. Joseph’s staff".

The Victorians must have been among the latter: they forbade young girls of inhaling the scent of Tuberose in the fear they might have a spontaneous orgasm. Roja Dove is right when he says that Tuberose is really loose, the "Harlot of perfumery".

The natural blossoms are so powerful they can fill a room and continue to exude their scent for days after picking.

Tuberose essential oil behaves as an aphrodisiac and its very strong, intense and intoxicating floral fragrance fills the air and creates an atmosphere of love.

Tuberose essential oil is world famous for its use in perfumes and the rich, intense and long lasting floral fragrance is an ideal choice for a deodorant and that is why it is so popular in the countries with hot and humid climate, as they have to deal with sweat and resultant body odor.

Tuberose enfleurage oil cannot be distilled like most essential oils due to the delicate nature of the flowers. Enfleurage was the traditional method of extraction used in ancient Egypt and into the early 20th century but solvent extraction using hexane, to create “Absolutes”, has virtually replaced enfleurage.

In South America who extracts the essential oil from the flower by the ancient method of enfleurage, using only Palm oil (organic) and Alcohol (organic) derived from local Sugar Cane (organic).

The entire process of extracting the Tuberose oil it done by hand using no heat and no harsh chemical solvents. Pure local Palm oil is used to absorb the aromatic oils from the Tuberose flower petals and once the Palm oil is completely saturated with the essence of the Tuberose flower then the Palm oil is separated from the Tuberose oil by Cane Sugar Alcohol which is then evaporated to leave only the pure Tuberose oil.

Over 3500 pounds of blossoms are needed to produce 1 pound of the essential oil which is why Tuberose enfleurage essential oil is one of the most expensive oils on earth, even more than most Rose Attars.

Chemical structure:

The main chemical components are menthyl benzoate, menthyl anthranilate, benzyl alcohol, butyric acid, eugenol, nerol, farnesol and geraniol.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-17)

Spearmint Essential Oil (Mentha Spicata) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Spearmint Essential Oil (Mentha Spicata) BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Mentha spicata

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Part Typically Used: Leaves and Flowers/Buds

Color: Clear

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Minty, slightly fruity aroma that is less bright than peppermint.

It has a similar aroma to that of Peppermint oil, but is slightly sweeter and is pale yellow to greenish in color. Unlike Peppermint, Spearmint does not contain high amounts of Menthol.

Spearmint plants were macerated and added to milk to lengthen the shelf life of milk.

Spearmint or Spear Mint (Mentha Spicata) is a species of mint native to much of Europe and Asia (Middle East, Himalayas, China), and naturalized in parts of northern and western Africa, North and South America, as well as various oceanic islands.

Other common names for Spearmint include Green Mint, Garden Mint, Fish Mint and Our Lady’s Mint.

It is aherbaceous, rhizomatous, perennial plant growing 30 - 100 cm tall, with variably hairless to hairy stems and foliage, and a wide - spreading fleshy underground rhizome. The leaves are 5 - 9 cm long and 1,5 - 3 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The stem is square - shaped, a trademark of the mint family of herbs.

Spearmint produces flowers in slender spikes, each flower pink or white, 2,5 - 3 mm long, and broad.

The herb grows easily under fertile, moist and loose soil conditions.

Spearmint oil is extracted by steam distillation.  This involves using steam from boiling water to extract the essential oil from the plant.  The heat from the steam causes the plant’s cell walls to open allowing the essential oil to be released.

During the Middle Ages, Spearmint leaves were scattered on the floors of public spaces to ward off rodents and to encourage general good health. The herb was also used to heal sore gums and to whiten teeth.

The Spearmint plant is native to Europe, but is now also cultivated across the United States and Asia. The state of Washington is currently one of the world's largest producers of Spearmint oil, whose most common use is as a flavor additive to toothpaste, chewing gums and candy.

Chemical structure:

A major component of the oil is R-carvone, pure R-carvone is sufficient to produce a smell which people identify as a Spearmint smell.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-17)

Petitgrain Essential Oil (Citrus Aurantium) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Petitgrain Essential Oil (Citrus Aurantium)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Citrus aurantium

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distillation

Part Typically Used: Leaves and green twigs

Color: Pale yellow to amber

Watery in viscosity

Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Greenish woody orange smell

Though distilled from the same botanical species as Neroli and Bitter Orange, Petitgrain essential oil possesses its own characteristically unique aroma.

Petitgrain essential oil is distilled from the leaves and sometimes the twigs and branches of the tree whereas Neroli essential oil is distilled from the blossoms and Orange essential oil is typically cold pressed from the rinds of the fruits.

Its main regions of production are Paraguay and France, with the former's product being of higher odour tenacity. Petitgrain oil (little grain) gains its name from the fact that it used to be extracted from the small unripe Oranges of the plant.

Thisessential oil is less floral and less citrusy than Neroli or Orange. It has a beautiful, fresh, woody aroma that blends well with the other citrus oils.

Bitter Orange belongs to the Rutaceae family and is believed to have originated in South - East Asia, and spread to North - Eastern India, Burma and China, eventually finding its way via Arab traders to Africa, Arabia and Syria.

From these regions it was taken to the Mediterranean by the Moors and the Crusaders, and by the end of the 12th century it was cultivated in Seville, Spain, thereby leading to the common name for Bitter Oranges "Seville Oranges". This species was also the first "orange" to reach the New World thanks to the second voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1493.

in the south of France was once well - known for the large quantities of high-quality oil coming from its distilleries. Petitgrain oil was particularly rich in olfactives, and was used for high - quality perfumes and cosmetics of all sorts. The Grasse industry has since diminished, and the main producer now is Paraguay.

Other than in Paraguay, bitter orange trees are cultivated for the production of Petitgrain essential oil in Algeria, Egypt, France, Guinea, Haiti, Italy, Morocco, Spain and Tunisia.

All Citrus oils are very difficult to preserve, so store in dark bottles, cork very carefully, and keep in the dark. Only buy when they are fresh.

The Bitter Orange tree is a small evergreen that reaches a height of about 3 metres in cultivation, but may attain up to 6 metres when growing in the wild. It has a smooth brown trunk with stout branches, and when compared to the Sweet Orange tree (Citrus Dulcis) it has a tighter crown of leaves and more erect stature. The twigs are flexible with rather blunt thorns, and leaves are broad-ovate, glossy and highly aromatic.The green twigs contain a significant amount of essential oiland it is these, along with the aromatic leaves that are used as the source material for Petitgrain essential oil.

Chemical structure:

The main constituents of Petitgrain oil are geraniol, geranyl acetate, linalool, linalyl acetate, myrcene, nerol, neryl acetate, and terpineol.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-16)

Petitgrain Essential Oil (Citrus Aurantium) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Medicine / Health

Petitgrain Essential Oil (Citrus Aurantium)MEDICINE / HEALTH
Children: avoid topical use on children under 2.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-16)

Roman Chamomile Essential Oil (Chamaemelum Nobile) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Roman Chamomile Essential Oil (Chamaemelum Nobile)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Chamaemelum nobile (or Arthemis nobilis)

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distilled

Part Typically Used: Flowers

Color: Deep ink - blue

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Sweet, fruty, apple-like fragrance.

Chamomile is one of the most popular herbs in the Western world. There are two plants known as Chamomile: the more popular German Chamomile (Matricaria Recutita) and Roman, or English Chamomile (Chamaemelum Nobile). Although they belong to different species.

Chamaemelum nobile commonly known as Chamomile Roman, English Chamomile, Garden Chamomile, Ground Apple, Low Chamomile or Whig Plant, is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds in Europe, North America, and in Argentina. Chamaemelum Nobile is, along with Matricaria Chamomilla (Matricaria Recutita), an important source of the herbal product known as Chamomile.

Chamaemelum Nobile has daisy - like white flowers and procumbent stems. The leaves are alternate, pinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flower heads, rising 8-12 cm. in above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver - white ray flowers. The flowering time is June and July, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and herbaceous.

Its history dates back as far as the ancient Egyptians who dedicated it to their Gods due to its curative properties, particularly when used for the acute fever known at the time as the Ague. Chamomile was also used by the Romans in medicines, beverages and incense.

During the Middle Ages this particular species of chamomile was commonly used as a "strewing" herb which helped to create a fragrant atmosphere at public gatherings and celebrations. When walked upon, theessential oil sacs in the flowers would release their wonderful fragrance into the air.

Depending upon the prevailing weather conditions, harvesting takes place during late June or July. To determine when the time is precisely right for harvesting, a small test distillation must be done every few days so that the resulting oil can be analysed using gas chromatography. If the oil is to meet the desired therapeutic quality for use in aromatherapy, certain constituents within the oil must also be at a particular level within the plant prior to distillation.

Once all the conditions are right, harvesting begins. It can take up to two weeks to cut the Chamomile in all of his fields. After cutting, the crop is allowed to sun - dry for a short period before being steam distilled to extract the beautiful pale blue essential oil. The flowers typically yield between 0,4 and 1,7% of essential oil.

Chemical structure:

Blue Chamomile essential oil has a high content of azulene, the active organic compound of Chamomile, which bears a blue color.  Azulene has anti-inflammatory, skin healing properties.

Chamazulene does not show up as a constituent of Roman Chamomile until the distillation process becausechamazulene is bound with glycoside Matricine, which is a sugar molecule that becomes hydrolysed due to the pressure and heat of the steam distillation process of extracting the essential oil. The volatile azulenes become unbound and alpha-bisabolol and chamazulene are then freed and show as newly present constituents of Chamomile oil.

The main chemical components of Roman Chamomile oils are a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, caryophyllene, and propyl angelate and butyl angelate.

Both Chamomile oils are extracted from the flowers by steam distillation, with the Roman Chamomile yielding about 1,7 % from fresh flowers and German Chamomileyielding about 0,2 - 0,4 %.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-16)

Peru Balsam Essential Oil (Myroxylon Balsamum) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Peru Balsam Essential Oil (Myroxylon Balsamum)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Myroxylon balsamum

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used: Crude balsam

Color: Deep brown

Very thick

Perfumery Note: Base

Peru balsam has a lot of names:

Balsamum peruvianim, Black Balsam, China oil, Honduras Balsam, Indian Balsam, Peruvian Balsam, Peru Balsam, Surinam Balsam, Balsams Peru, Balsam Peru oil, Oil balsam Peru, Peru Balsam oil, Balsamum Peruvianum, Bálsamo del Perú, Baume du Pérou, Baume Péruvien, Baume de San Salvador, Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch resin, Myroxylon Balsamum var. pereirae, Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch oil, Myrospermum Pereirae, Myrosperum Pereira Balsam, Balsam fir Oleoresin, balsam fir oil, Hyperabsolute Balsam, Quina, Balsamo, Tolu, Quina quina, Santos Mahogany, Toluifera Pereirae, and Toluifera Pereira Balsam. 

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Smell like a mixture of Clove, Cinnamon and Vanilla, sweet and spicy.

Balsam of Peru essential oil is distilled from Balsam of Peru, a resinous substance secreted from a tree in Central and South America.

Balsam of Peru, also known and marketed by many other names, is a balsam derived from a tree known as Myroxylon, which is grown in Central America (El Salvador) and South America. It is known by names like Black Balsam, Quina, Tolu, Balsam Fir oil, Balsam Fir oleoresin, Peru Balsam Oil, Indian Balsam, China oil and Balsamo. This essential oil have a unique aromatic combination of sweet and spicy.

The trees are large, growing to 40 metres tall, with evergreen pinnate leaves 15 centimetres long, with 5 - 13 leaflets. The flowers are white with yellow stamens, produced in racemes. The fruit is a pod 7 - 11 centimetres long, containing a single seed. The tree is often called Quina or Balsamo, Tolu in Colombia, Quina quina in Argentina, and sometimes Santos Mahogany or Cabreuva.

The tree contains an oil that is naturally resistant to decaying, and also resistant to preservative treatments. When introduced into tropical regions the tree can become highly invasive. The tree threatens ecology in Sri Lanka, several Pacific Islands, and Indonesia as it tends to grow in dense stands blocking out the ability for other vegetation to grow. This leads to local native plants disappearing and the animals and insects that feed on those plants starve as a result.

The wood is dark brown, with a deep red heartwood. Natural oils grant it excellent decay resistance. In fact, it is also resistant to preservative treatment.

Balsam of Peru is an aromatic viscous resin obtained by scorching or inflicting V - shaped wounds on the bark of the trunk of the tree Myroxylon Balsamum var. Pereirae. In response, the Balsam of Peru - oily, resin - like, aromatic fluid - exudes to heal the tree's lesions, and the liquid is collected.

The essential oil is obtained through steam distillation of the bark of the tree. Another way is essential oil is distilled from the balsam. The resin - free essential oil is obtained from the crude balsam by high vacuum dry distillation. The oil can also be co-distilled from the resin using solvents.

 Another way of extracting:

Peru is harvested in successive phases. The bark is burned and these specific spots are covered with pieces of cloth that absorb the exudate. The cloth is then pressed and the balsam is purified by boiling. The trees suffer no permanent damage from this process, and can continue to yield balsam for more than 100 years. Biolandes has established a secure and sustainable supply at the source, importing purified balsam to France where it is processed to produce Peru absolute. Peru production amounts to about 80 tons per year.

In the early period of Spanish dominion in Central and South America the balsam was collected in Central America and shipped to Callao and Lima in Peru, then shipped onward to Europe. It acquired the name of Peru because it was shipped from there. Its export to Europe was first documented in the seventeenth century in the German Pharmacopedia. Today it is extracted under a handicraft process, and is mainly exported from El Salvador.

Chemical structure:

Balsam of Peru smells of Vanilla and Cinnamon because it contains - among its 25 or so different substances -  cinnamein, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl cinnamate, benzyl benzoate, benzoic acid, and vanillin.

It also contains cinnamic acid alcohol and aldehyde, farnesol, and nerolidol. A minority of it, approximately 30 - 40%, contains resins or esters of unknown composition. It also contains essential oils similar to those in Citrus fruit peel. These are all potential allergens.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-16)

Nutmeg Essential Oil (Myristica Fragrans) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Nutmeg Essential Oil (Myristica Fragrans)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Myristica fragrans

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Dried seeds

Color: Light yellow


Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma: Rich, sweet, woody, sharp, spicy and rather musky in aroma.

Nutmeg is one of the two spices - the other being mace - derived from several species of tree in the genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica Fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas (or Spice Islands) of Indonesia. In Indonesia Nutmeg knows in "Pala" name.

When the oil is made from the husks it produces mace. The true Myristica Fragrans essential oil is the oil extracted from the seeds, pure Nutmeg oil.

The common or fragrant Nutmeg, Myristica Fragrans, is native to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas, Indonesia. It is also cultivated on Penang Island in Malaysia, in the Caribbean, especially in Grenada, and in Kerala, a state in southern India.

is the seed of the tree, roughly egg - shaped and about 20 to 30 mm long and 15 to 18 mm wide, and weighing between 5 and 10 g dried, while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or aril of the seed.

The first harvest of Nutmeg trees takes place 7 - 9 years after planting, and the trees reach full production after twenty years. Nutmeg is usually used in powdered form.

was known as a valuable commodity by Muslim sailors from the port of Basra (including the fictional character Sinbad the Sailor in the One Thousand and One Nights). Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for high prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade, and no European was able to deduce its location.

The Dutch waged a bloody war, including massacring and enslaving the inhabitants of the islandof Banda, to control nutmeg production in the East Indies in 1621.

The trade in Nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The English and Dutch,through their competing East India and Dutch East India Companies, engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run Island.

As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the British took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted Nutmeg trees, complete with soil, to Sri Lanka, Penang, Bencoolen, and Singapore. From these locations they were transplanted to their other colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada.

The national flag of Grenada, adopted in 1974, shows a stylised split-open Nutmeg fruit. The Dutch retained control of the spice islands until World War II.

Chemical structure:

Myristicin in the essential oil is actually not the agent responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of Nutmeg oil, the chemical known as Elemicin is a non-toxic, relatively safe psychoactive similar to Mescaline.

In low doses, Nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response, but in large doses, raw Nutmeg has psychoactive effects. Mace oil has a higher concentration ofmyristicin than normal Nutmeg oil.

Essential oil volatile fraction typically contains 60-80% d-camphene by weight, as well as quantities of d-pinene, limonene, d-borneol, l-terpineol, geraniol, safrole, and myristicin. In its pure form, myristicin is a toxin, and consumption of excessive amounts of Nutmeg can result inmyristicinpoisoning.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-04-15)