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Tangerine Essential Oil (Citrus Reticulata) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Tangerine Essential Oil (Citrus Reticulata)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Citrus reticulata

Common Method of Extraction:
Cold expression

Part Typically Used: Fruit fresh peel

Color: Yellow orange

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Fresh, sweet, orange - like

Tangerine essential oil has the typical citrus scent - fresh, radiant, and tangy sweet. With only subtle differences, it smells a lot like the Mandarin, with some even considering them identical. In comparison to Sweet Orange, Tangerine can be seen as lighter with more candy like tones.

The Tangerine is a variety of the Mandarin Orange. You may sometimes see it on the market as Citrus x Tangerine. The oils have similar properties, but different aroma characteristics.

However, there is a slight difference. Mandarins are more yellow in color and come with pips, while Tangerines are more orange in color and come without pips. So, Mandarin essential oil is also called Tangerine essential oil. The botanical name of both of these plants is Citrus Reticulata, which shows that they are same.

As the name suggests, Mandarin plants are native to China. From there, they went to Europe and now Italy is one of the biggest producers of Mandarin oil.

The Mandarin Orange (Citrus Reticulata), also known as the Mandarin or Mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges. Specifically reddish - orange Mandarin cultivars can be marketed as Tangerines, but this is not a botanical classification.

The tree is more drought - tolerant than the fruit. The Mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas.

Mandarins are one of the four core ancestral Citrus taxa, and are thought to have evolved in Vietnam, southern China, and Japan.

Mandarins have a special place in Chinese culture as they were given as gifts to the Mandarins (the name given to Chinese officials under the king).

Mostly used in thefragrance industry. Tangerine oil doescontain limonene, which may suggest its use in household cleaners.

Chemical structure:

TheTangerine essential oil is extracted by cold compression of the fresh peels of these fruits and containsalpha thujone, alpha pinene, beta pinene, camphene, citral, citronellal, gamma terpinolene, geranial,geraniol, limonene, linalool, methyl methylanthranilate,myrcene, nerol, sabinene and terpineol.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-08)

Green Tea Extract (Camellia Sinensis) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Green Tea Extract (Camellia Sinensis)BASE / GENERAL
A Green Tea Extract is a herbal derivative from Green Tea Leaves (Camellia Sinensis). Containing antioxidant ingredients - mainly Green Tea catechins (GTC). Green Tea and its derivatives are sometimes used as dietary supplements and in alternative medicine.

Camellia Sinensis plant is originally cultivated in East Asia, this plant grows as large as a shrub or tree. Today, Camellia Sinensis grows throughout Asia and parts of the Middle East and Africa.

Camellia Sinensis is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. It is of the genus Camellia of flowering plants in the family Theaceae. Common names include "Tea Plant", "Tea Shrub".

Camellia Sinensis is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is usually trimmed to below 2 m when cultivated for its leaves. It has a strong taproot. The flowers are yellow - white, 2,5 - 4 cm  in diameter, with 7 to 8 petals.

White Tea, Yellow Tea, Green Tea, Oolong, Pu-erh Tea and Black Tea are all harvested from one or the other, but are processed differently to attain varying levels of oxidation. Kukicha (Twig Tea) is also harvested from Camellia Sinensis, but uses twigs and stems rather than leaves.

The useful parts of green tea are the leaf bud, leaf, and stem. Green tea is not fermented and is produced by steaming fresh leaves at high temperatures. During this process, it is able to maintain important molecules called polyphenols, which seem to be responsible for many of the benefits of Green Tea.

The leaves are 4-15 cm long and 2 - 5 cm broad. Fresh leaves contain about 4% Caffeine. The young, light green leaves are preferably harvested for tea production: they have short white hairs on the underside. Older leaves are deeper green.

Different leaf ages produce differing tea qualities, since their chemical compositions are different. Usually, the tip (bud) and the first two to three leaves are harvested for processing. This hand picking is repeated every one to two weeks.

Chemical structure:

Green Tea Extract is a bioflavonoid rich, potent extract used primarily for fightingfree radicals. It contains a high content of polyphenols, which are a class of bioflavonoids. Green Tea Extract contains a potent antioxidant, EGCG, which is over 200 times more powerful than Vitamin E .

The cardinal antioxidative ingredient in the Green Tea Extract is Green Tea catechins (GTC), which comprise four major epicatechin derivatives: namely, epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Of which, EGCG accounts for more than 40% of the total content.

Other components include three kinds of flavonoids, known as kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. A remarkably higher content of myricetin is detected in tea and its extracts than in many other plants, and this high concentration of myricetin may have some implications with the bioactivity of Tea and its extracts.

The more the leaves are fermented, the lower the polyphenol content and the higher the caffeine content. Green Tea has the highest polyphenol content while black tea has roughly 2 - 3 times the caffeine content of Green Tea.

Caffeine may be excluded in Green Tea Extracts in order to avoid side - effects: caffeine - free Green Tea Extract supplements are now available.

Types of Green Tea Extracts:

Strong infusions:
During the strong infusion Green Tea leaves are processed by soaking in the aqueous solution of Alcohol (the aspect content is about 2% w/w).

Soft Extracts:
To obtain soft extracts, the solution made by strong infusion beforehand is further concentrated to 20–25% (the catechin content is about 20% w/w).

Dry Extracts: After the strong infusions have been concentrated to 40 - 50% solids (the catechin content is above 25% w/w), they are sprayed and then become dehydrated Extract and powder.

The leftovers - water content, which is less then 5% w/w, and the Extract - are usually processed as a powder containing inert processing aids to become suitable for a variety of uses ( tablets, capsules, dry mixes).

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-08)

Matcha Green Tea Powder (Camellia Sinensis) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Matcha Green Tea Powder (Camellia Sinensis)BASE / GENERAL
Matcha is finely ground powder of specially grown and processed green tea. It's special in two aspects of farming and processing: The green tea plants for matcha are shade grown for about 3 weeks before harvest, and the stems and veins are removed in processing.

Matcha comes from the same plant that all true teas come from: camellia sinensis, the leaves of which can be made into green tea (unfermented tea: it’s simply steamed and dried). Matcha is a true green tea, but its growth style, harvest, and production style are markedly different from those of other green teas.

The highest  -grade matcha come almost invariably from one of three Japanese varietals (they’re called samidori, okumidori, and yabukita in Japanese).

The main area of matcha cultivation in Japan is a place called Uji, which sits on the southeast border of the city of Kyoto, the homeland of almost all traditional Japanese arts and aesthetic pursuits. Many matcha connoisseurs consider Uji to have the ultimate terroir for matcha cultivation, and many of Japan’s most distinguished (and most expensive) matcha come from Uji.

Truly superior matcha must have five key characteristics:

- brilliant color intensity
- superior umami
- excellent terroir (which by definition means a rare tea)
- dreamy frothability
- a long, smooth finish that contains crema to the very last drop.

The very best matcha, in contrast, gets harvested - always by hand - just once per year, typically in May. Roughly six weeks before harvest, that is to say sometime in late March or early April, the tea fields, which are surrounded by scaffolding of sorts, are covered from the top. Traditionally, straw was employed for this, but nowadays it’s typically black vinyl sheets. The idea is to slowly and gradually decrease the amount of sunlight, and hence photosynthesis, by covering up more and more of the light allowed to shine on the plants.

The highest grade matcha is grown in near - darkness by the time harvest rolls around.

As a result of this decreased light, the tea leaves begin to crank out increasing amounts of both chlorophyll and amino acids: the newest growth is very, very delicate, with ever - softer and ever - thinner buds. This increased amino acid content serves to concentrate specific molecules, most of which are glutamates, which give the match its intense umami flavor profile. Great matcha is sweet and mouth - watery, with no traces of bitterness, because of this high amino acid content.

Only the smallest, youngest / greenest parts of the plant - the two leaves at the tip of each new shoot - are picked. They are then steamed to preserve the color and nutrients, and to stop the enzymatic action within the leaves, then thoroughly dried in large cages equipped with heated blowers.

Once dry, they are sorted for grade (with the youngest, greenest, most tender leaves earning the highest marks). Then the laborious and immensely time  -consuming task of destemming and deveining happens. The leaves that make it through this rigorous process are called tencha, and, of course, the quality of tenchavaries widely. Tencha is then kept refrigerated until it’s ready to be ground, using large granite wheels that rotate very slowly and gently to avoid scorching,  into a very fine powder known as matcha. It takes more than an hour to grind 30 grams, which is one of the reasons hand - milled matcha costs so much (labor costs are quite high in Japan). It is this grinding process from which matcha, literally, “ground tea” derives its name.

In the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279), the method of making powdered tea from steam - prepared dried tea leaves, and preparing the beverage by whipping the tea powder and hot water together in a bowl became popular. Preparation and consumption of powdered tea was formed into a ritual by Chan or Zen Buddhists. The earliest extant Chan monastic code, entitled Chanyuan Qinggui, describes in detail the etiquette for tea ceremonies.

Zen Buddhism and the Chinese methods of preparing powdered tea were brought to Japan in 1191 by the monk Eisai. Although powdered tea has not been popular in China for some time, there is now a global resurgence in Matcha tea including in China. In Japan it continued to be an important item at Zen monasteries, and became highly appreciated by others in the upper echelons of society during the 14th through 16th centuries.

Prior to use, the matcha is often forced through a sieve in order to break up clumps. There are special sieves available for this purpose. A special wooden spatula is used to force the tea through the sieve, or a small, smooth stone may be placed on top of the sieve and the device shaken gently.

If the sieved matcha is to be served at a Japanese tea< served at a Japanese tea ceremony, it will then be placed into a small tea caddy known as a chaki.

A small amount of matcha is placed into the bowl, traditionally using a bamboo scoop called a chashaku, and then a modicum of hot (not boiling: 70 - 85 °C ) water is added. The mixture is then whisked to a uniform consistency, using a bamboo whisk known as a chasen. There must be no lumps left in the liquid, and no ground tea should remain on the sides of the bowl.

There are two main ways of preparing matcha: thick  (koicha) and thin (usucha).

It is usually considered that 40 g of matcha will provide for 20 bowls of usucha or 10 bowls of koicha.

Usucha, or thin tea, is prepared with approximately 1,75 grams (about half a teaspoon) of matcha and approximately 75 ml of hot water per serving.

Koicha, or thick tea, requires significantly more matcha (usually about doubling the powder and halving the water): approximately 3,75 grams (about one teaspoon) of matcha and approximately 40 ml of hot water per serving. Because the resulting mixture is significantly thicker (about like liquid honey), blending it requires a slower, stirring motion that does not produce foam. Koicha is normally made with more expensive matcha from older tea trees (exceeding thirty years) and, thus, produces a milder and sweeter tea than usucha.

Chemical structure:

Matcha is basically a form of whole green tea leaves with extra theanine and chlorophyll. Shaded growth produces more theanine and chlorophyll. That's why matcha is supposedly more effective for improving mental focus with its higher theanine content, looks very green with more chlorophyll and tastes softer without stems and veins.

The antioxidant catechins, especially EGCG in green tea leaves, is one of the main reasons that many health - conscious people consume green tea leaves or matcha specifically.

In addition to providing small amounts of vitamins and minerals, matcha is rich in antioxidants called polyphenols.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-08)

Green Tea Extract (Camellia Sinensis) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Medicine / Health

Green Tea Extract (Camellia Sinensis)MEDICINE / HEALTH The biochemical properties of Green Tea Extracts can be generally divided into four aspects - antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-radiation.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-08)

Labdanum Essential Oil (Cistus Ladaniferus) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Labdanum Essential Oil (Cistus Ladaniferus)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Cistus ladaniferus

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distilled

Part Typically Used: Aerial (leaves and twigs)

Yallow - broun

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Warm, sweet, dry, rich herbaceous

This resin oil ir rich warm, spicy and a bit lemon - like. It is a bit incense - like and slightly camphoraceous, yet with distinct balsamic note. Essential oil distilled from the resin or by directly distilling the leaves and twigs.

Cistus Ladaniferus
is a species of flowering plant in the family Cistaceae. It is native to the western Mediterranean region. Common names include Gum Rockrose, Laudanum, Labdanum, Common Gum Cistus and Brown-Yyed Rockrose.

It is a shrub growing 1 - 2,5 m  tall and wide. The leaves are evergreen, lanceolate, 3 - 10 cm long and 1 - 2 cm broad, dark green above and paler underneath. The flowers are 5 - 8 cm diameter, with 5 papery white petals, usually with a red to maroon spot at the base. The whole plant is covered with the sticky exudate of fragrant resin, the source of Labdanum, used in herbal medicine and perfumery.

Cistus Ladaniferus is particularly well suited to the continentalized Mediterranean climate, standing both long summer droughts and cold weather. In Spanish it is known as Jara Pringosa meaning "Sticky Shrub". In Portuguese it is known as "Esteva".

It is a popular ornamental plant, grown for its strongly resin - scented foliage and conspicuous flowers. Its leaves yield a fragrant oleoresin known as Labdanum, used in perfumes, especially as a fixative.

Cistus essential oil  is steam distilled from the leaves of wild crafted Cistus Ladaniferus.  There is some confusion, in the industry, about this oil because there are two other oils produced from the plant:  an absolute that is solvent extractedfrom the flowers which is correctly referred to as an absolute, but there is another solvent extracted oil that is produced from the resinwhich is usually referred to as an essential oil but, is not anessential oil.

The resin is processed through solvent extraction, which usually will end up containing residual solvent in the oil.  This should not be confused with the actual essential oil, which is steam distilled.

The Egyptians, after importing Cistus from Crete, used the resin as a perfume and incense. It is said that in Christ’s time, an incense was made with Myrrh, Frankincense and “Onycha”, later identified as Gum Labdanum, which is extracted from the leaves of Cistus.

It has been said that Rock Rose is the plant in the Bible referred to as “Rose of Sharon”.

In ancient times, Labdanum was collected by combing the beards and thighs of goats ans sheep that had grazed on the Cistus shrubs. Wooden instruments used were referred to in 19th century Crete as ergastiri a Lambadistrion ("Labdanum - Gatherer") was a kind of rake to which a double row of leathern thongs were fixed instead of teeth. These were used to sweep the shrubs and collect the resin which was later extracted. It was collected by the shepherds and sold to coastal traders. Many of the false beards worn by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt were made of goats hair which held together by Labdanum

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-04)

Baking Soda (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Baking Soda (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate)BASE / GENERAL
Sodium Bicarbonate (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate) is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.

Sodium Bicarbonate is a white solid that iscrystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of Washing Soda (Sodium Carbonate).

Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as Baking Soda, Bread Soda, Cooking Soda, and Bicarbonate of Soda.

The word Saleratus, from Latin Sal æratus meaning Aerated salt, was widely used in the 19th century for both Sodium Bicarbonate and Potassium Bicarbonate. The term has now fallen out of common usage.

The ancient Egyptians used natural deposits of natron, a mixture consisting mostly of Sodium Carbonate decahydrate, and Sodium Bicarbonate. The natron was ground up, solvated, and used as paint for hieroglyphics.

NaHCO3 is mainly prepared by thesolvay process, which is the reaction of Sodium Chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in Water. Calcium Carbonate is used as the source of CO2 and the resultant calcium oxide is used to recover the ammonia from the ammonium chloride. The product shows a low purity (75%).

Pure product is obtained from Sodium Carbonate, Water and carbon dioxide as reported in one of the following reactions. It is produced on the scale of about 100,000 tonnes / year.

Chemical structure:

In 1791, a French chemist, Nicolas Leblanc, produced Sodium carbonate, also known as Soda Ash.

Commercial quantities of Baking Soda are also produced by a similar method: Soda Ash, mined in the form of the ore trona, is dissolved in Water and treated with carbon dioxide. Sodium Bicarbonate precipitates as a solid from this method: Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3.

Sodium Bicarbonate is amphoteric, reacting with acids and bases. It reacts violently withacids, releasing CO2 gas as a reaction product. Sodium Bicarbonate is not recommended for the clean up of acid spills, as the heat produced increases the reactivity of the acid.

Sodium Bicarbonate has difference between Baking Soda and Baking Powder. Baking Powder contains Baking Soda, as well as a powdered acid and cornstarch.

In scientific terms, Baking Soda is a pure substance, Baking Powder is a mixture.

Baking Soda is alkaline, so acid is used in baking powder to avoid a metallictaste when the chemical change during baking creates Sodium Carbonate.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-04)

Stevia Extract (Stevia Rebaudiana) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Stevia Extract (Stevia Rebaudiana)BASE / GENERAL
Stevia is a sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia Rebaudiana.

Stevia is a South American herb used as a natural sweetener for centuries. The leaves of the Stevia Rebaudiana plant have a refreshing taste, zero glycemic index, zero calories and zero carbs. It is 25 - 30 times sweeter than Sugar, and far more healthy.

Stevia has no calories, and it is 200 times sweeter than Sugar in the same concentration. Other studies suggest Stevia might have extra health benefits.

The Stevia plant is part of the Asteraceae family, related to the daisy and ragweed. Several Stevia species called "Candyleaf" are native to New Mexico, Arizona and Texas.  It is part of the Sunflower family and its leaves are naturally sweet. In fact, the indigenous people used to chew them for their sweet taste and use them to naturally sweeten beverages.

The plant Stevia Rebaudiana has been used for more than 1,500 years by the Guaraní peoples of South America, who called it Ka'a he'ê ("Sweet Herb"). The leaves have been used traditionally for hundreds of years in both Brazil and Paraguay to sweeten local teas and medicines, and as a "Sweet Treat".

taste has a slower onset and longer duration than that of Sugar, and some of its extracts may have a bitter or Licorice - like aftertaste at high concentrations.

Chemical structure:

Extraction metod: Rebaudioside A has the least bitterness of all the steviol glycosides in the Stevia Rebaudiana plant.

To produce rebaudioside A commercially, Stevia plants are dried and subjected to a water extraction process. This crude extract contains about 50% rebaudioside A. The various glycosides are separated and purified via crystallization techniques, typically using ethanol or methanol as solvent.

The active compounds of Stevia are steviol glycosides, which have up to 150 times the sweetness of Sugar are heat - stable, pH - stable, and not fermentable.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-04)

Jar ☸ Tools ☸ Base / General

Jars are very convenient capacity to store oil. The Jar fits very well to produce oil infusers. Very well that Jar has dark brown or dark blue glass color. Oils keeps better in a glass container. Plastic storage container designed to store oil for the short time. 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-04)

Poppy Seed Oil (Papaver Somniferum) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Poppy Seed Oil (Papaver Somniferum)BASE / GENERAL
 While growing Poppies islegal, it is illegal to process what is grown into the drug form.

Poppyseed oil
(also Poppy Seed oil, Poppy oil) is an edible oil from Poppy seeds (Seeds of Papaver Somniferum, the Opium Poppy). The oil has culinary and pharmaceutical uses, as well as long established uses in the making of paints, varnishes, and soaps.

Seventy to 100 different varieties of the Poppy exist. The Opium Poppy is a small annual, but other Poppy species may be annual, biennial, or perennial. The bright showy flowers of the genus Papaver range in color from white to deep reds and purples. The seeds of the plants vary in color from light cream to blue - black and are numerous and minutely pitted. Sap from the seed pods may be white, orange, or red.

Poppy Seed oil
is a clear, light yellow oil with a pleasant smell.

The earliest accounts of the use of poppy preparations date to the ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia, where the plant was used medicinally and was known as Hul Gil (the Plant of Joy).

Poppy Seed oil is a drying oil. In oil painting, it is a popular oil for binding pigment, thinning paint, and varnishing finished paintings. Poppy seed oil has been used for painting for at least 1500 years - one of the oldest known oil paintings, found in caves of Afghanistan and dated to AD 650, was likely drawn using Poppy seed oil.

An early 20th century industry manual states that while the Opium Poppy was grown extensively in Eurasia, most of the world production of Poppy seed oil occurred in France and Germany, from Poppy seeds imported from other countries.

From 1900 to 1911, France and Germany together produced on the order of 60,000,000 kilograms per year. At that time, poppyseed oil was used primarily to dress salads and frequently was adulterated with Sesame oil and Hazelnut oil to improve the taste of oil from stored (rancid) seeds.

Chenical strucutre:

Poppy seed oil is a carrier oil, having little or no odor and a pleasant taste. The primary aroma compound responsible for its flavor is 2 - pentylfuran, also present are the volatilecompounds 1 - pentanol, 1 -hexanal, 1 - hexanol, and caproic acid.

Poppy seeds yield 45 - 50% oil. Like Poppy seeds, Poppy Seed oil is highly palatable, high in Vitamin E.

Poppy Seed oil
from one source has been reported to contain 30,9 mg gamma-tocopherol per 100 g. It also contains alphaand gamma tocotrienols, but not others. Compared to other vegetable oils, Poppy Seed oil has a moderate amount of phytosterols: higher than Soybean oil and Peanut oil, lower than Safflower oil, Sesame oil, Wheat Germ oil, Corn oil, and Rice Bran oil.

Sterols in Poppy Seed oil consist almost entirely of campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and delta 5 - avenasterol.

Poppy seed oil
is high in linoleic acid. Other triglycerides present in notable quantities are oleic acid and palmitic acid.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-02)

Pistachio Oil (Pistacia Vera) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Pistachio Oil (Pistacia Vera)BASE / GENERAL
The earliest records of Pistachio in English are around roughly year 1400, with the spellings “Pistace” and “Pistacia”.

The word Pistachio comes from medieval Italian Pistacchio, which is from classical Latin Pistacium, which is from ancient Greek Pistákion and Pistákē, which is generally believed to be from Middle Persian, although unattested in Middle Persian. Later in Persian, the word is attested in Persian as Pesteh. As mentioned, the tree came to the ancient Greeks from Western Asia.

The Pistachio a member of the Cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. Pistachio trees can be found in regions of Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece, Xinjiang (China), Tunisia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, India, Egypt, Italy (Sicily), Uzbekistan, Afghanistan (especially in the provinces of Samangan and Badghis), and the United States(California).

It is indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean (Cyprus and Turkey to Israel and Syria), Central Asia (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan) and Xinjiang.

is a desert plant, and is highly tolerant of saline soil. Pistachio trees are fairly hardy in the right conditions, and can survive temperatures ranging between -10 °C in winter and 48 °C in summer. They need a sunny position and well - drained soil.

The bush grows up to 10 m tall. It has deciduous pinnate leaves 10 - 20 centimeters long. The plants are dioecious, with separatemaleand female trees. The fruit is a drupe, containing an elongated seed, which is the edible portion.

The fruit has a hard, creamish exterior shell. The seed has a mauvish skin and light green flesh, with a distinctive flavor. When the fruit ripens, the shell changes from green to an autumnal yellow / red, and abruptly splits part way open. This is known as dehiscence, and happens with an audible pop.

Each Pistachio tree averages around 50 kilograms of seeds, or around 50,000, every two years.

It takes 5 - 8 years until the trees come to fruition and only after 15 years, crops are abundant. Crop rotation is very two years which means that the crop is altemately larger and smaller.

Pistachio oil is a pressed oil, extracted from the fruit of Pistacia Vera, the Pistachio nut. Compared to other Nut oils, Pistachio oil has a particularly strong flavor. Like other Nut oils, it tastes similar to the nut from which it is extracted.

Pliny the Elder writes in his Natural History that Pistachio seeds were a common food as early as 6750 BC. asserts that Pistacia, “well known among us” was one of the trees unique to Syria, and that the seed was introduced into Italy by the Roman Proconsul in Syria.

The Pistachio is one of three seeds mentioned in the Bible.

Archaeologists have found evidence from excavations at Jarmo in northeastern Iraq. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were said to have contained Pistachio trees during the reign of King Merodach - Baladan about 700 BC.

Chemical structure:

Pistachio oil is high in Vitamin E, containing 19mg/100g. It contains 12,7% saturated fats, 53,8% monounsaturated fats, 32,7% linoleic acid, and 0,8% omega - 3 fatty acid.

Pistachio kernel oil
has a very well balanced ratio of omega - 9 and omega - 6 (essential fatty acids) and is more stable than Walnut oil.

The nuts are packed with many importantB - complex groups of Vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B - 6, and folates.

They are the storehouse of minerals like copper, manganese, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium.

100 g nuts provide 144% of daily - recommended levels of copper. Copper is an essential trace mineral that is required in neuro - transmission, metabolism, as well as red blood cell (RBC) prodution.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-02)

Milk Thistle Oil (Silybum Marianum) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Milk Thistle Oil (Silybum Marianum)BASE / GENERAL
Silybum Marianum has other common names include Cardus Marianus, Milk Thistle, Blessed Milk Thistle, Marian Thistle, Mary Thistle, Saint Mary's Thistle, Mediterranean Milk Thistle, Variegated Thistle and Scotch Thistle. This species is an annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae family.

This fairly typical Thistle has red to purple flowers and shiny pale green leaves with white veins. Originally a native of Southern Europe through to Asia, it is now found throughout the world.

Possibly native near the coast of southeast England, it has been widely introduced outside its natural range, for example into North America, Iran, Australia and New Zealand where it is considered an invasive weed.

Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum) is a thorny plant presenting decorative leaves with a white pattern of veins and purple flower heads. The plant originates from mountains of the Mediterranean region, where it forms scrub on a rocky base.

It grows 30 to 200 cm tall, having an overall conical shape with an approx.The flower heads are 4 to 12 cm long and wide, of red - purple colour. They flower from June to August in the North or December to February in the Southern Hemisphere ( Summer through Autumn ). The achenes are black, with a simple long white pappus, surrounded by a yellow basal ring.

The seeds of Milk Thistle are one of the most important herbal liver medicines. The sylimarin contained in them is an effective life - saving agent even in cases of poisoning with a lethal dose of death cap mushroom.

Milk Thistles are currently cultivated in large numbers in many countries of the world -  for use by the pharmaceutical industry - including: Austria, Poland, Germany, Hungary, China, and Argentina. The plant is typically harvested 2 to 3 weeks after flowering - via a two - step process: cutting and threshing.

Milk Thistle gets its name from the milky sap that comes out of the leaves when they are broken. The leaves also have unique white markings that, according to legend, were the Virgin Mary’s milk.

Don’t confuse Milk Thistle with Blessed Thistle (Cnicus Benedictus).

Chemical structure:

Traditional Milk Thistle extract is made from the seeds, which contain approximately 46% silymarin. The extract consists of about 65 - 80% silymarin (a flavonolignancomplex) and 20 - 35% fatty acids, includinglinoleic acid.

Silymarin is a complex mixture of polyphenolic molecules, including seven closely related flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silychristin, isosilychristin, silydianin) and oneflavonoid (taxifolin). Silibinin, a semipurified fraction of silymarin, is primarily a mixture of 2 diastereoisomers, silybin A and silybin B, in a roughly 1: 1 ratio.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-02)

Pumpkin Seed Oil (Cucurbita Pepo L.) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Pumpkin Seed Oil (Cucurbita Pepo L.)BASE / GENERAL
Cucurbita Pepo is a cultivated plant of the genus Cucurbita. It yields varieties of winter squash and Pumpkin, but the most widespread varieties belong to Cucurbita Pepo, called Summer Squash.

Cucurbita  Pepo is one of the oldest, if not the oldest domesticated species. The oldest known locations are in southern Mexico in Oaxaca 8,000 - 10,000 years ago and Ocampo, Tamaulipas, Mexico about 7,000 years ago. Its ancient territory extended north into Texas and up the Greater Mississippi River Valley into Illinois and east to Florida, and possibly even to Maine. It is known to have appeared in Missouri at least 4,000 years ago. Some varieties grow in arid regions and some in moist regions.

Due to their varied genetic background, members of Cucurbita Pepo vary widely in appearance, primarily in regards to their fruits. The plants are typically 1,0 - 2,5 feet high, 2 - 3 feet wide, and have yellow flowers. Within Cucurbita Pepo, the Pumpkins, Scallops, and possibly Crooknecks are ancient and were domesticated separately. The domesticated species have larger fruits and larger yet fewer seeds. Parthenocarpy is known to occur in certain cultivars of Cucurbita pepo.

Pumpkin Seed oil has an intense nutty taste and is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Browned oil has a bitter taste.

Pumpkin Seed oil is extracted from Pumpkin Seeds that have been coarsely ground and toasted at temperatures of about 60 °C. Only by this procedure, its typical flavour is developed.

Pumpkin Seed oils
obtained by cold extraction are comparably tasteless. In the last years, production of Pumpkin Seed oil has much increased, since Austria’s EU membership has opened new markets.

Today the oil is an important export commodity of Austria and Slovenia. It is made by pressing roasted, hulled Pumpkin Seeds (Pepitas), from a local variety of pumpkin, the "Styrian oil Pumpkin". It has been produced and used in Styria's southern parts at least since the 18th century.

Styrian Pumpkin Seed oil is a dark greenish - black liquid, reddish on reflection and has an intense, nutty odour and flavour. It is often termed the "Styrian Black Gold" in reference to its dark colour similar to petroleum.

The viscous oil is light to very dark green to dark red in colour depending on the thickness of the observed sample. The oil appears green in thin layer and red in thick layer. Such optical phenomenon is called dichromatism.

Pumpkin oil is one of the substances with strongest dichromatism.

Chemical structure:

Pumpkin Seeds
are rich sources offatty acids. The four dominant fatty acidsare palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid.

HPLC analysis
of the powerful pigments found in Pumpkin Seed oil reveal a number of carotenoids - the main components being beta catotene and lutein. In addition other carotenoids present include - violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, auroxanthin, flavoxanthin, chrysanthemaxanthin, alpha-cryptoxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin and alpha-carotene.

Pumpkin Seeds
contain 30 - 50% oil composed mainly offatty acids including palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids (these four fatty acids make up 98% of the total amount of fatty acids)

Tocopherols including beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol and carotenoids including lutein and beta - carotene.

Pumpkin Seed oil contains lipids:

Fatty acids, total saturated
- 19,9%
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated - 32,4%
Oleic acid - 32,2%
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated - 47,7%
Linoleic acid - 47,3%g
Linolenic acid - 0,46%
Phytosterols (in free and bound forms) approximately -  2g/100g
Cholesterol - 0g/100g.

Pumpkin Seed oil
used locally in Eritrea was found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha - tocoferols (3mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%).

The four dominant fatty acids found were: palmitic (13,3%), stearic (8,0%), oleic (29,0%) and linoleic (47,0%).

Variation in nutrient content exists between different cultivars and varieties of Pumpkin.

The flavour of Pumpkin Seeds and Pumpkin Seed oil develops in a toasting procedure, which is applied to the seeds immediately before extracting the oil. In this process, a multitude of volatile, flavourful compounds forms via the Maillard reaction. There is little scientific research in that field, but it seems that the most important flavour contributions come from pyrazines, 2,6 - dimethylpyrazine.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-01)

Rice Bran Oil ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Rice Bran oil is popular as a “Healthy oil” in Japan, Asia, and particularly India. Be careful not to confuse Rice Bran with other forms of Bran such as Oat and Wheat Bran.

Rice Bran oil
is the oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of Rice after chaff ( Rice husk). It is notable for its high smoke point of 232 °C and its mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking methods such as stir frying and deep frying.

The Bran fraction, which includes the Germ or embryo in most commercial milling operations, represents only about 8% of paddy weight but contains about three - fourths of the total oil. Containing about 15 - 20% oil (the same general range of Soybeans), rice bran is commercially feasible for oilextraction.

It has a very appealing nut - like flavor and once extracted is very stable with good fry - life. But perhaps its most notable feature is its high level of components with nutraceutical value such as gamma - oryzanol and tocotrienols.

Rice Bran oil is made from the most nutritious part of rice, the Bran and Germ. The most growing Rice Bran oil is made in Thailand. Thai Rice which has been grown sustainably for thousands of years.

Chemical structure:

Rice Bran oil is truly "The World's Healthiest" edible oil, containing Vitamins, antioxidants, nutrients and trans fat free.

Rice Bran oil has a composition similar to that of Peanut oil, with 38% monounsaturated, 37% polyunsaturated, and 25% saturated fatty acids.

Fatty acid composition:

Myristic acid - 6%
Palmitic acid - 5%
Stearic acid - 2,9%
Oleic acid (an omega - 9 fatty acid) - 38,4%
Linoleic acid (LA, an omega - 6 fatty acid) - 34,4%
α-Linolenic acid (ALA, an omega - 3 fatty acid)  - 2,2%

One major problem with this oil is its ratio of omega - 6 to omega - 3. Rice Bran oil contains high amounts of omega - 6 fatty acids (linoleic acid) and virtually no omega - 3 (linolenic acid). This fact alone is enough to strike this oil out of diet permanently unless you are supplementing with omega - 3.

The ideal ratio between these two fatty acids is 1:1 and the nutritional habits of most people in developed nations has this ratio soaring more than 15:1 (omega - 6: omega - 3).

Rice Bran oil
may also have the potential to be genetically modified in the future, so it's important to ensure only organic sources of this oil are used. Rice Bran itself is also potentially high in arsenic so this is another level of concern which requires more research.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-01)

Ravensara Essential Oil (Ravensara Aromatica) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Ravensara Essential Oil (Ravensara Aromatica)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Ravensara aromatica

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:

Color: Pale yellow


Perfumery Note: Medium

Strength of Initial Aroma: Clean and fresh scent, slightly spicy, camphory, woody herbaceous.

Ravintsara and Ravensara are both obtained from trees belonging in the Lauraceae family. The Lauraceae family includes Camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora "Monum"), Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum), bay Laurel (Laurus Nobilis), Rosewood (Aniba Rosaeodora), Ho Wood (Cinnamomum Camphora), May Chang (Litsea Cubeba), Ravensara (Ravensara Aromatica), Ravintsara (Cinnamomum Camphora).

Ravensara (Ravensara Aromatica) and Ravintsara (Cinnamomum Camphora) are two essential oilsdistilled from 2 very different trees.  For many years, oils from both trees have been distilled and traded on the market as Ravensara with a reference to the botanical names Ravensara Aromatica or Cinnamonum Camphora. It is only a few years ago that research into the chemical make up of these oils has finally given them their distinctive botanical identity.

Ravensara Aromatica is a member of the Lauraceae (laurel) family, and originates in Madagascar. The name Ravensara is a latinization of the Malagasy word Ravintsara. Other Malagasy names include Havozo, Hazomanitra and Tavolomanitra. The leaves and twigs of Ravensara Aromatica have a mildly camphorous aroma similar to Eucalyptus.

This tree itself is quite aromatic and releases a fragrant aroma.

The people of Madagascar refer to Ravensara essential oil as the oil that heals. The name of the tree in Malagasy means “Aromatic Leaf”, which may be the reason why different botanical species are sometimes offered under this name.

Ravensara Aromatica
originates from Australia.  Two oils are produced from the tree, one from the leaves - Ravensara Aromatica - and one from the bark - Ravensara Anisata.  Both oils contain a very high level of methylchavicol (estragol) (70 to 90%) a suspected carcinogen.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-01)

Melissa Essential Oil (Melissa Officinalis) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Melissa Essential Oil (Melissa Officinalis)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Melissa officinalis

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Fresh flowering tops, leaves and stems

Color: Pale yellow


Perfumery Note:
Top / middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Sweet, fresh and citrus-like smell.

Melissa officinalis
, known as Lemon Balm, balm or Balm Mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to south-central Europe, North Africa, the Mediterranean region, and Central Asia.

It grows to 70 - 150 cm tall. The leaves have a gentle lemon scent, related to mint. During summer, small white flowers full of nectar appear. The white flowers attract bees, hence the genus name Melissa (Greek for 'honey bee'). Its flavour comes from citronellal(24%), geranial (16%), linalyl acetate (12%) and caryophyllene (12%).

In mild temperate zones, the stems of the plant die off at the start of the winter, but shoot up again in spring. Lemon Balm grows vigorously and should not be planted where it will spread into other plantings.

In the 14th century it was included in tonic water made by the French Carmelite nuns and Paracelsus (1493 - 1541) called this herb "The Elixir of Life" while John Evelyn (1620 -1706) described it as "sovereign for the brain, strengthening the memory, and powerfully chasing away melancholy".

Besides Rose Otto, Melissa essential oil it is one of the most expensive therapeutic oils on the market today (pure therapeutic grade Lemon Balm oil or Melissa oil ranges in price from$150 to $225 for a 5 ml bottle).

Chemical structure:

The main chemical components aretrans-ocimene, cis - ocimene, 3 - octanone, methyl hepenone, cis-3 - hexenol, 3-octanol, 1 - octen - 3 - ol, copaene, citronellal, linalool, b - bourbonene, caryophyllene, a - humulene, neral, germacrene - D, geranial, geranyl acetate, d - cadinene, y - cadinene, nerol and geraniol.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-01)

Rice Bran Oil ☸ Base oils ☸ Beauty / Cosmetics

Thisoil has long been used in Japan as a base for soap, skin moisturizer and protector. It is said to be an effective substitute for lanolin. Rice Bran oil is especially used for treating dry and mature skin.

The oil is purported to reverse the effect of aging by slowing the formation of facial wrinkles thanks to Rice Bran oil's rich concentration of Vitamin E and gamma-oryzanol.

In Japan, women who use rice bran oil on their skin are known as "Rice Bran Beauties".

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-01)

Linden Blossom Essential Oil (Tilia Vulgaris) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Linden Blossom Essential Oil (Tilia Vulgaris)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Tilia vulgaris

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extracted

Part Typically Used: Flowers

Color: Yellow brown to yellow, deep coffee brown


Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Sweet, deep and slightly spicy, rather long lasting, warm, floral, honey - like, with a slight citrus-like note.

This is an extremely thick, almost solid extract.

Lime Blossom or Linden Blossom is particularly popular in France. Its essential oil is actually an absolute, which means that the oil is extracted by adding a solvent.

Although Linden Blossom grows widely and is used as herb, the essential oil is hard to come by. It is cultivated limitedly and mostly in France.

The genus is generally called Lime or Linden in Britain and Linden, Lime, or Basswood in North America.

Latin Tilia is cognate to Greek Ptelea, "Elm Tree", Tiliai "Black Poplar", ultimately from a Proto - Indo - European word  Ptel - ei̯ā with a meaning of "Broad" (feminine), perhaps "Broad - Leaved" or similar.

is one of the most important trees in European, Eastern Asian and North American forests. It grows mostly in mixed forests with other deciduous and evergreen trees. In Europe there are a lot of places named after Linden tree.

The Linden tree is a medium sized tree with dark green heart - shaped leaves, with blue - green undersides. Tilia species are mostly large, deciduous trees, reaching typically 20 - 40 metres tall, with oblique-cordate leaves 6 - 20 centimetres across. As with elms, the exact number of species is uncertain, as many if not most of the species will hybridise readily, both in the wild and in cultivation.

Limes are hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers with both male and female parts, pollinated by insects.

The tree has fragrant yellow - white flowers, followed by round green fruits. The flowers are an aromatic, mucilaginous herb with diuretic, expectorant and calming properties.

No other tree features as prominently in popular poetry, songs and literature as the Linden. The Linden was also a highly symbolic and hallowed tree to the Germanic people in their native pre - Christian mythology.

Naturally, this motherly tree is also protective against witches, devils and other evil spirits.

Linden is a Mother of a Tree - everything about her is feminine, nurturing, loving and caring as only mothers can be. She spreads her branches protectively like and arboreal embrace.In Norse and Germanic mythology she is sacred to Freya or Frigga, Goddesses of Love and in the hearts and minds of the people she was perhaps the most beloved of all trees.

Linden trees were especially honoured in Slavic countries, but also in France and Germany, where just about every village had a central Linden tree that served as the social and cultural focal point of village life.

The outpouring of nectar from her flowers provides a feast for gazillions of bees and epitomizes her generous, providing nature. Bees, of course, are sacred to the Great Mother Goddess and the honey they produce is nectar for the Gods.

In Greek mythology Homer, Horace, Virgil, and Pliny mention the Linden tree and its virtues. As Ovid tells the old story of Baucis and Philemon, she was changed into a Linden and he into an Oak when the time came for them both to die.

According to a folklore, the Linden tree was blessed with all these virtues by Mary, mother of Jesus. One day Jesus was wandering the earth feeling tired and ill. He lay down to rest under a Linden tree and fell asleep. Protectively the Linden tree spread her branches over the sick man. Some time later Mary, who had followed him, came by and found her son under the tree. Alas, when he woke up he was cured and restored. Mary, grateful to the tree for having so lovingly cared for her son, blessed it with healing and protective virtues, of which it has given generously ever since.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-31)

Coriander Essential Oil (Coriandrum Sativum) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Coriander Essential Oil (Coriandrum Sativum)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Coriandrum sativum

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Crushed ripe seeds

Pale yellow


Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Sweet, spicy, warm smell.

Coriander also known as Cilantro Chinese Parsley or Dhania, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and northern Africa to southwestern Asia. An herb originating in Egypt.

The annual or biennial plant is a native of Morocco and grows to about 1 meter in height. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink. The fruit is a globular, dry schizocarp 3-5 mm in diameter. The seeds are generally used as a spice or an added ingredient in other foods or recipes, although sometimes they are eaten alone.

The leaves, when crushed, give off an unpleasant odor like squashed bugs. The Greek name "Koris"  is the root word for Coriander.

The seeds have been used for thousands of years by the Egyptians, as an aphrodisiac (with seeds even found in the tomb of Tutankhamun) and by the Romans and Greeks to flavor their wines, while the Indians use it in their cooking.

The Carmelite order in France used the seeds to flavor their 17th century toilet water.

Chemicla strucutre:

Coriander oil is extracted from the crushed ripe seeds bysteam distillation and yields 0,8-1,0 % oil.

Coriander essential oil consists of compounds likeBorneol, Cineole, Cymene, Dipentene, Linalool, Phellandrene, Pinene, Terpineol and Terpinolene.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-31)

Crushed Chili Pepper Flakes ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Crushed Chili Pepper FlakesBASE / GENERAL
Crushed Red Pepper or Red Pepper Flakes (RPF) is a condiment consisting of dried and crushed (as opposed to ground) Red Chili Peppers.

The condiment is made from hot dried Red Peppers and is not made of one type of Chili, but from various combinations of Ancho,Bbell, Cayenne and other dried Red Peppers.

Often there is a high ratio of seeds, which some people believe intensifies the heat of this flavorful condiment, whereas the heat actually comes from the vein of the Pepper pith (off of which the seeds grow).

Pepper hotness is measured by Scoville units - the higher the Scoville unit, the hotter the Pepper. For example, a Sweet Bell Pepper has zero Scoville units whereas the mighty Habanero Pepper ranges from 100,000 to 350,000. The hottest Pepper on the scale is the Trinidad Scorpion Butch at 1,463,700.

The flavor lasts a bit longer if they are kept refrigerated or kept in a cool dark cabinet away from the heat of the stove and feel that works just fine.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-31)

Saucepan ☸ Tools ☸ Base / General

Good - quality Pots and Pans made of the right materials really can improve cooking.

Good heat conductors, such as copper and aluminum, are responsive to temperature changes. They'll do what the heat source tells them to do - heat up, cool down - almost instantly.

For cookingacidic foods, such as tomato sauces, wine sauces, and fruit fillings, a saucepan lining should be nonreactive. Stainless steel, enamel, and anodized aluminum won't react no matter what they touch, while plain aluminum can discolor white sauces and foods that are acidic, sulfurous or alkaline. It can even make those foods taste metallic. Eggs, vegetables in the cabbage family, and Baking soda are some of the other foods vulnerable to aluminum's graying effect. 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-31)

Linden Blossom Essential Oil (Tilia Vulgaris) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Spiritual Practises

Linden Blossom Essential Oil (Tilia Vulgaris)SPIRITUAL PRACTISES
Linden is the essence of love and compassion, the Green Tara of Trees.

It can be used to meditate on the Motherenergy and to celebrate the mother aspect of the Great Goddess. It represents love in action, compassion and caring.

It can be used to meditate on spiritual and transcendental love and to open the Heart Chakra. Its protective and healing energy is well suited to any healing ritual.

Linden protects against demons that torture the mind with anguish and fear.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-31)

Angelica Essential Oil (Angelica Archangelica) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Angelica Essential Oil (Angelica Archangelica)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Angelica archangelica

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Roots, rhizome, seeds and and the herb itself

Color: Pale yallow


Perfumery Note:
Top to middle

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Sharp, green, herbaceous, with peppery overtones.

comes from the Greek word "Arkhangelos" (Arch - angel), due to the myth that it was the archangel Michael who told of its use as medicine.

It is called Angelica, since it normally flowers on the 8th May, which is St Michael the Archangel's Day, and for this reason it is often planted in monasteries and is referred to as "Angel Grass". It is a sweet herbal smelling oil that has a spicy undertone and is also known as European Angelica.

Angelica Archangelica, commonly known as Garden Angelica, Holy Ghost, Wild Celery, and Norwegian Angelica, is a biennial plant from the Apiaceae family, a subspecies of which is cultivated for its sweetly scented edible stems and roots.

Angelica is unique amongst the Umbelliferae for its pervading aromatic odor, a pleasant perfume entirely different from Fennel, Parsley, Anise, Caraway or Chervil. It has been compared it to Musk and to Juniper.

Even the roots are fragrant, and form one of the principal aromatics of European growth - the other parts of the plant have the same flavor, but their active principles are considered more perishable.

Angelica Archangelica grows wild in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, mostly in the northern parts of the countries.

It is cultivated in France, mainly in the Marais Poitevin, a marsh region close to Niort. It also grows in certain regions in Germany like the Harz mountains, and in certain regions of Romania, like the Rodna Mountains, and some South East Asian countries like Thailand.

During its first year it only grows leaves, but during its second year its fluted stem can reach a height of two meters. Its leaves are composed of numerous small leaflets, divided into three principal groups, each of which is again subdivided into three lesser groups. The edges of the leaflets are finely toothed or serrated.

The flowers, which blossom in July, are small and numerous, yellowish or greenish in colour, are grouped into large, globular umbels, which bear pale yellow, oblong fruits.

Angelica only grows in damp soil, preferably near rivers or deposits of water.

The plant is said to originate from Africa and was introduced to Europe in the 16th century. From the 10th century on, Angelica was cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal plant and achieved popularity in Scandinavia in the 12th century and is still used today, especially in Sami culture.

Chemical structure:

The essential oilis composed of various chemical constituents such as: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, a-phellandrene, myrcene, limonene, b-phellandrene, cis-ocimene, trans-ocimene, p-cymene, terpinolene, copaene, bornyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, cryptone, b-bisabolene, rho-cymen-8-ol, humulene oxide, tridecanolide and pentadecanolide.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-29)

Himalayan Cedarwood Essential Oil (Cedrus Deodara) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Himalayan Cedarwood Essential Oil (Cedrus Deodara)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Cedrus deodora

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:

Color: brownish-yellow

Consistency: Slightly viscous liquid

Perfumery Note: Middle / Base

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Clean balsamic, woody, rich, herbaceous, pleasant, woody-balsamic undertone.

The botanical name, which is also the English common name, derives from the Sanskrit term Devadāru, which means "Wood of the gods", a compound of Deva "God" and Dāru "Wood, tree". Among Hindus, as the etymologyof Deodar suggests, it is worshiped as a Divine tree.

It is widely grown as an ornamental tree, often planted in parks and large gardens for its drooping foliage. General cultivation is limited to areas with mild winters, with trees frequently killed by temperatures below about −25 °C.

Cedrus Deodara (Deodar Cedar, Himalayan Cedar, or Deodar, Devdar, Devadar, Devadaru) is a species of Cedar native to the western Himalayas in eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, north Republic of India (Jammu, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states), southwestern Tibet and western Nepal, occurring at 1,500 - 3,200 maltitude.

It is a large evergreen coniferous tree reaching 40 - 50 m tall, exceptionally 60 m with a trunk up to 3 m in diameter. It has a conic crown with level branches and drooping branchlets. Its needle - like leaves are triquetrous, present in whorls and dark green with a silver sheen.

Flowers, open in autumn, are cone - like in shape and occur upright on horizontal branches. Similar to other Cedars, the Heartwood of Himalayan Cedarwood is highly aromatic and yields about 2,1% of essential oil.

Deodar is in great demand as building material because of its durability, rot -r esistant character and fine, close grain, which is capable of taking a high polish. Its historical use to construct religious temples and in landscaping around temples is well recorded. Its rot - resistant character also makes it an ideal wood for constructing the well-known houseboats of Srinagar, Kashmir.

Forests full of Deodar or Devadāru trees were the favorite living place of ancient Indian sages and their families who were devoted to the Hindu god Shiva. To please Lord Shiva, the sages used to perform very difficult tapasya (meditation) practices in Deodar forests. Also the ancient Hindu epics and Shaivite texts regularly mention Darukavana, meaning a Forest of deodars, as a Sacred place.

Cedarwood essential oil is collected from wood chips and sawdust.

The inner wood is aromatic and used to make incense. Inner wood is distilled into essential oil. Produces an oil very similar to the Atlas Cedarwood. Cedar trees date back to the Bible where they symbolised everything fertile and abundant.

Most of the Cedarwood oils are obtained from wild trees but little information is published on the extent to which oil production may have affected the natural resource. In Kenya, as already noted, there has been a serious depletion of the wild trees as a result of over - exploitation for timber and oil. The position in the People's Republic of China is not known. American oil production utilizes waste wood from trees felled for timber as well as the considerable areas where the junipers grow as invasive "weeds".

For those cases where the trees are utilized for both timber and oil production sawdust, wood shavings and other waste wood materials from the saw mills are taken to the distillery for steam distillation and recovery of oil in the normal manner. Sawdust should not be exposed to direct sunlight before distillation, otherwise oil yields and quality are diminished.

In steam distillation process, the plant material is heated with water which produces a steam that contains the volatile oils from the plant. The steam is then cooled, which condenses the oil, and it is separated from the water and collected.

The deodar tree is the national tree of Pakistan.

Chemical structure:

Chemically and biologically this oil can be used as Atlas Cedarwood. It is also a true cedar. Since it is from the Himalayan Mountains and is associated with Tibet, there is a special place for this oil just to have these vibrations in our home. 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-29)

Cypress Essential Oil (Cupressus Sempervirens) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Cypress Essential Oil (Cupressus Sempervirens)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Cupressus sempervirens

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used: Needles and twigs

Color: Pale Yellow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note:
Top  / Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Fresh, herbaceous, slightly woody, evergreen aroma.

Cupressus Sempervirens
, the Mediterranean Cypress (also known as Italian Cypress,Tuscan Cypress, Graveyard Cypress, or Pencil Pine) is a species of Cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southern Albania, southern coastal Croatia, southeast Greece, southern Turkey, Cyprus, northern Egypt, western Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Malta, Italy, western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran.

Cupressus Sempervirens is a medium - sized coniferous evergreen tree to 35 m tall, with a conic crown with level branches and variably loosely hanging branchlets. It is very long - lived, with some trees reported to be over 1,000 years old.

The foliage grows in dense sprays, dark green in colour. The leaves are scale - like, 2-5 mm long, and produced on rounded (not flattened) shoots. The seed cones are oval or oblong, 25-40 mm long, with 10-14 scales, green at first, maturing brown about 20-24 months after pollination.

The essential oil of Cypress is obtained through steam distillation of young twigs, stems and needles. Cypress, a needle bearing tree of Coniferous and Deciduous regions, bears the scientific name of Cupressus Sempervirens.

Has been used for thousands of years as a cleansing incense for several Nepalese and Tibetan cultures. Cypress trees were planted outside of temples and burial grounds by the Greeks and Romans.

Chemical strucutre:

The essential oils extracted from Cypress contain components like alpha pinene, beta pinene, alpha terpinene, bornyl acetate, carene, camphene, cedrol, cadinene, sabinene, myrcene, terpinolene and linalool, which contribute to its medicinal properties. 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-29)

Yarrow Bud (Achillea Millefolium) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Yarrow Bud (Achillea Millefolium)BASE / GENERAL
Achillea Millefolium, known commonly as Yarrow or Common Yarrow, is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Asia, Europe, and North America.In New Mexico and southern Colorado, it is called Plumajillo (Spanish 'Little Feather') from its leaf shape and texture.

Other common names for this species include Gordaldo, Nosebleed Plant, Old Man's Pepper, Devil's Nettle, Sanguinary, Milfoil, Soldier's Woundwort, Thousand-Leaf, and Thousand-Seal.

Yarrow grows from sea level to 3,500 metres in elevation. The plant commonly flowers from May through June. Common Yarrow is frequently found in the mildly disturbed soil of grasslands and open forests. Active growth occurs in the spring.

"Achillea" refers to Achilles, an ancient hero. He said that he used Yarrow for himself and for his soldiers. "Millefolium" means "Coming of a Thousand Leaves". This refers to the very small, fine and feathery leaves of this plant.

Achillea Millefolium is an erect herbaceous perennial plant that produces one to several stems 0,2 - 1 metre in height, and has a spreading rhizomatous growth form. Leaves are evenly distributed along the stem, with the leaves near the middle and bottom of the stem being the largest.

The inflorescence has 4 to 9 phyllaries and contains ray and disk flowers which are white to pink. The generally 3 to 8 ray flowers are ovate to round. Disk flowers range from 15 to 40. The inflorescence is produced in a flat - topped cluster. The fruits are small achenes.

It was one of the herbs dedicated to the Evil One, in earlier days, being sometimes known as Devil's Nettle, Devil's Plaything, Bad Man's Plaything, and was used for divination in spells.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-28)

Rose Hips Petal (Rosa Canina) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Rose Hips Petal (Rosa Canina)BASE / GENERAL
Roses are a group of herbaceous shrubs found in temperate regions throughout both hemispheres. There are over 100 species of Rose. Rosa Canina is used especially for its Rose Hips.

Rosa Canina, commonly known as the Dog-Rose, is a variable climbing Wild Rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia.

It also known that it was used in the 18th and 19th centuries to treat the bite of rabid dogs, hence the name "Dog Rose" may result from this (though it seems just as plausible that the name gave rise to the treatment). Other old folk names include Dogberry and Witches Briar.

Historical The word "hips" comes from the Anglo-Saxon word hiope and "Dog Rose" comes from dag meaning "Dagger".

It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1 - 5 m, though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Its stems are covered with small, sharp, hooked prickles, which aid it in climbing.

The flowers are usually pale pink, but can vary between a deep pink and white. They are 4 - 6 cm diameter with five petals, and mature into an oval 1,5 - 2 cm red-orange fruit, or hip.

Rosa Canina loves to grow in woodlands, copses, scrub, and hedges up to altitudes of 550 metres. Where offered support, they can climb high into trees. The smaller Hedgehog Rose, will be found growing at altitudes of up to 400 metres.

All Roses can be grown in sun or light shade, and thrive in well-drained, slightly acid soil.

Simple, yet beautiful blooms are borne singularly or in small clusters on the Dog Rose, from late spring to mid - summer.

Historically, Roses have been important since ancient times, in the preparation and use of foods, medicines, cosmetics, ritual, and perfumery. It is known that the Greeks, Persians, and Romans, employed many kinds of Rose as medicines.

The Dog Rose was the stylized rose of medieval European heraldry, and is still used today. It is also the county flower of Hampshire. Legend states the Thousand - year Rose or Hildesheim Rose, that climbs against a wall of Hildesheim Cathedral dates back to the establishment of the diocese in 815.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-28)

Lemon Eucalyptus Essential Oil (Eucalyptus Citriodora) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Lemon Eucalyptus Essential Oil (Eucalyptus Citriodora)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Eucalyptus citriodora

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used: Leaves and twigs

Color: Pale Yellow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top / Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Fresh, medicinal, heavy lemon aroma.

Corymbia Citriodora is a tall tree, growing to 35 metres in height, from temperate and tropical north eastern Australia. It is also known as Lemon - Scented Gum, Blue Spotted Gum, Lemon Eucalyptus and Eucalyptus Citriodora.

Corymbia Citriodora has smooth, pale, uniform or slightly mottled bark, white to coppery in summer, and a conspicuously narrow - leaved crown which smells strongly of Lemons. The bark is smooth for the entire height of the tree, often powdery, shedding in thin curling flakes.

Eucalyptus Citriodora is one of the most popular Eucalyptus trees grown throughout Melbourne in Australia, which is its native country. This species is believed to have originated from a restricted area of Queensland on the Tropic of Capricorn, and is now found growing throughout the world’s tropical climates.

There are many types of Eucalyptus used to distill oil. Oils high in Eucalyptol are used medicinally, and oils such as the Eucalyptus Lemon are used more in thefragrance industry. More recently it has become a popular addition to natural bug repellents.

Although large quantities of Eucalyptus Citriodora essential oil were distilled in Queensland during the 1950 and 1960, very little of this oil is produced in Australia today. The largest producing countries are now Brazil, China and India, with smaller quantities originating from South Africa, Guatemala, Madagascar, Morocco and Russia.

The essential oil of the Lemon-Scented Gum mainly consists of citronellal(80%), produced largely in Brazil and China.

In Brazil, leaf harvesting may take place twice a year, whereas most of the oil produced in India comes from smallholders who harvest leaves at irregular times, mostly depending on convenience, demand, and oil trading prices.

After collection, the leaves, stems and twigs are sometimes chipped before quickly loading into the still for extraction by steam distillation. Processing takes approximately 1,25 hours and delivers a yield of 1,0% to 1,5% of a colourless to pale straw coloured essential oil.

Chemical strucutre:

The odour is very fresh, Lemon-Citrus and somewhat reminiscent of Citronella oil (Cymbopogon Nardus), due to the fact that both oils contain high levels of the monoterpene aldehyde, citronellal.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-20)

Fennel Essential Oil (Foeniculum Vulgare) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Fennel Essential Oil (Foeniculum Vulgare)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Foeniculum vulgare

Common Method of Extraction:
Steam distilled

Part Typically Used: Seeds

Color: Palle yallow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma: Sweet, almost peppery, earthy.

Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) is a flowering plant species in the celery family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.

Family is also known as Fenkel and Roman Fennel.

It is a highly aromatic and flavorful herb with culinary and medicinal uses and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe.

Fennel, Foeniculum Vulgare, is a perennial herb. It is erect, glaucous green, and grows to heights of up to 2,5 m, with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long. The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5-15 cm wide, each umbel section having 20-50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The fruit is a dry seed from  4-10 mm long, half as wide or less, and grooved.

The ancient Greeks thought Fennel conveyed long life, courage, and strength. Their name for Fennel was Marathon from Mariano, meaning “To grow thin”. Fennel’s ability to stave off hunger was employed during fasting days in Europe.

Another version: The word "Fennel" developed from the Middle English Fenel or Fenyl. This came from the Old English Fenol or Finol, which in turn came from the Latin Feniculum or Foeniculum, the diminutive of Fenum or Faenum, meaning "Hay".

Fennel oil
has a herby, slightly spicy smell, much like Aniseed and it is clear in viscosity.

Chemical structure:

Fennel Aniseed flavour comes from anethole, an aromatic compound also found in Anise and Star Anise, and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though usually not as strong.

The main chemical components of Fennel oil are a-pinene, myrcene, fenchone, trans - anethole, methyl chavicol, limonene, 1,8 - cineole and anisic aldehyde.

Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of Anise, which are similar in taste and appearance, though smaller.

Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpastes.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-20)

Hyacinth Essential Oil (Absolute) (Hyacinthus Orientalis) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Hyacinth Essential Oil (Absolute) (Hyacinthus Orientalis)BASE / GENERAL Botanical Name: Hyacinthus orientalis

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent extraction

Part Typically Used:  Flowers

Color: Pale green to pale amber


Perfumery Note:
Top / Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: sweet, green, floral fragrance with soft floral undertones.

A somewhat green, sweet, floral scent which changes significantly over time and in relation to the individual pH level of the skin.

Hyacinth is a genus of bulbous flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.

Hyacinthus Orientalis (Hyacinth, Garden Hyacinth or Dutch Hyacinth), is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, native to southwestern Asia, southern and central Turkey, northwestern Syria, Lebanon and northern Israel. This plant is native to eastern Mediterranean, northeast Iran, and Turkmenistan, but it is commonly used as an ornamental plant in almost all parts of the world.

It is a bulbous plant, with a 3 - 7 cm diameter bulb. The leaves are strap - shaped, 15 - 35 cm long and 1- 3 cm broad, with a soft, succulent texture, and produced in a basal whorl. The flowering stem is a spike, which grows to 20 - 35 cm tall, bearing 2 - 50 fragrant purple flowers 2 - 3,5 cm long with a tubular, six - lobed perianth.

Hyacinthus Orientalis has a long history of cultivation as an ornamental plant, grown across the Mediterranean region, and later France (where it is used in perfumery), the Netherlands (a major centre of cultivation) and elsewhere. It flowers in the early spring, growing best in full sun to part shade in well - drained, but not dry, soil. It requires a winter dormancy period, and will only persist in cold-weather regions.

What is fascinating about the Hyacinth is that each of the many colors in which it appears in nature has its own fragrance. When Hyacinth just starts blooming, it produces a light floral aroma, but when the flower stem opens up the scent becomes very strong and powerful.

The essential oilis extremely precious. It requires 6000kg of flowers to yield one single litre of the essential oil. It is mostly used in high class perfumery.

Hyacinth absolute oil is solvent extracted with ethanolfrom the flowers.

It is important to note that all absolutes are extremely concentrated by nature. They should not be evaluated in this state unless you are accustomed to the undiluted fragrance. Recommend that  they be evaluated in dilution. Otherwise, the complexity of the fragrance - particularly the rare and exotic notes - become lost. Always dilute Hyacinth absolute oil to 5% or less in a carrier oil before applying to the skin.

It was introduced to Europe in the 16th century.

The name of the Hyacinth is derived from Greek language where it means “Flower of rain”. It is also mentioned as the “Sorrow flower” and “In memory of Hyacinthus” (who is a divine hero from Greek mythology), symbolizing dying and the resurrecting beauty of Nature.

A tragic love story tells the fate of Hyacinthus, a beautiful youth, beloved of Phoebus. One day, the two were out playing with the discus. Phoebus threw it far and high and hit the mark. Young Hyacinth ran to pick it up - alas, too eagerly, for Zephyrus, the mischievous Wind of the West, who also fancied Hyacinthus, had been roused with jealousy, and now he blew the discus from the sand. It hit poor Hyacinthus in the face and the youth fell to the ground. Blood flowed from his head his life lights were quickly fading.

Phoebus was heartbroken, but the wound was beyond repair, even by the might of his healing powers. And so, to immortalize the boy's memory he turned him into flower, which immediately sprang from the ground where his blood had fallen. Every year since then the Spartans celebrate an annual festival to keep the memory of Hyacinthus alive.

The Hyacinth was also one of the flowers that witnessed the rape of Persephone.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-20)

Everlasting Essential Oil (Helichrysum Italicum) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Everlasting Essential Oil (Helichrysum Italicum)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Helichrysum italicum

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distilled

Part Typically Used: Fresh flowering tops

Color: Yellow - reddish

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle / Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Herbal smell, strongly straw-like, fruity smell, with a honey and tea undertone.

The genus Helichrysum consists of an estimated 600 species, in the Sunflower family (Asteraceae). The type species is Helichrysum Orientale. The name is derived from the Greek words Helisso "To turn around" and Chrysos "Gold". It is commonly known as Everlasting oil, Immortelle and St. John's herb (not to be confused with St. John's Wort which is known as Hypericum Perforatum).

The plants may be annuals, Herbaceous Perennials or shrubs, growing to a height of 60 - 90 cm. Their leaves are oblong to lanceolate. They are flat and pubescent on both sides. The bristles of the pappus are scabrous, barbellate, or plumose. The receptacle (base of the flower head) is often smooth, with a fringed margin, or honey - combed, and resemble daisies.

When cut young and dried, the open flowers and stalks preserve their colour and shape for long periods.

Helichrysum Italicum is an European herb native to France, Italy and a few neighboring countries. This is a very costly oil and scarcely available, but unlike other essential oils which have a short shelf life, this oil can be stored for a very long time (5 - 7 years).

Helichrysum Italicum (synonym Helichrysum Angustifolium) is steam distilledto produce a yellow-reddish essential oilpopular in fragrance for its unique scent, best described as a mixture of burnt sugar and ham. Angustifolium means narrow leaved. The name is commonly misspelled as "Augustifolium".

Chemical structure:

The main chemical components of helichrysum oil are a-pinene, camphene, b - pinene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8 - cineole, linalool, terpinen - 4 - ol, neryl acetate, nerol, geraniol, eugenol, italidone and other b - diketones.

The essential oil yield for Helichrysum is quite low at approximately: 0,2 - 0,3%. This would be a contributing factor to its cost. The average price at the time of writing for 5mls is $32 - 40. US.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-05-20)