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Indian Frankincense Essential Oil (Boswellia Serrata) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Spiritual Practises

Indian Frankincense Essential Oil (Boswellia Serrata)SPIRITUAL PRACTISES
Frankincense has always been synonymous with spirituality. Like Myrrh, it was a prized possession in the ancient world, equal in value to many precious gems and metals. Its ancient use in ritual and temple offerings across religions both historic and modern day attest to its powerful spiritual attributes.

Frankincense essential oil
is revered for its powerfully uplifting and clarifying effects on the body and mind. When diffused in your home, it provides protection for you and your family encourages healthy moods. It will turn the fragrance of your home into that of a temple.

A few drops of this high-quality Frankincense oil can be applied to the palms, rubbed together and directly inhaled. This produces an instantaneous clarifying effect and a strong activation of the life-force (Prana). Frankincense essential oil can also be mixed with a carrier oil such as Coconut or Sesame and massaged into the skin to help the body stay limber and relaxed. It is particularly helpful for those who practice yoga.

Inactice yoga.

In spiritual and meditationblends it exudes a vibrational energy leading to relaxation of mental clutter to ground and connect with oneself. Frankincense serrata is an excellent choice for calming the mind and reducing stress.

Frankincense promote a good sleep, add 2-3 drops on a tissue, fold and place inside your pillowcase. Managing emotional and behaviour problems - profound psychologicaland spiritual benefits.

Frankincense moves Qi (Chi) energy to quicken the blood and also stretches the sinews, frees the channels, soothes the network vessels, and relieves pain.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-09-27)

Turmeric Root Powder (Curcuma Longa) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Spiritual Practises

Turmeric Root Powder (Curcuma Longa)SPIRITUAL PRACTISES
Ancient Indians understood Turmeric to be the physical essence of the Divine Mother - a botanical embodiment of compassion and healing.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-09-19)

Turmeric Root Powder (Curcuma Longa) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Medicine / Health

Turmeric Root Powder (Curcuma Longa)MEDICINE / HEALTH
It turns out that even modern science now confirm that this "Curry" spice has therapeutic properties relevant to well over 600 different health conditions, and may therefore bestow on those who take it significant protection from many common causes of human suffering.

Some of the more amazing examples are its ability to reverse aspects of dementia (Alzheimer's disease), replace Prozac, prevent type 2 diabetes, producecardiovascular benefits as significant as exercise, including preventing post - bypass heart attack by 56%, heal thediabetic liver, kill lethal pancreatic cancer,and help kick painkillers to the curb for osteoarthritis andrheumatoid arthritis.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-09-19)

Cucumber Juice (Cucumis Sativus) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Food / Cooking

Cucumber Juice (Cucumis Sativus)FOOD / COOKING
When you drink fresh - made green juice, it is almost like receiving an intravenous infusion of Vitamins, Minerals and enzymes because they go straight into your system without having to be broken down. When your body has an abundance of thenutrients it needs, and your PH is optimally balanced, you will feel energized and yourimmune system will get a boost.

Cucumbers are very low in calories, yet they make a filling snack (one cup of sliced Cucumber contains just 16 calories). 8 The soluble fiber in Cucumbers dissolves into agel-like texture in your gut, helping to slow down your digestion. This helps you to feel full longer and is one reason whyfiber-rich foods may help with weight control.

If you're looking for something different, Cucumbers make an ideal base for your vegetable juice due to their mild flavor and high water content. In fact, a simple juice of Cucumber and Celery is ideal for those new to juicing.

Cucumber Juice should be consumed within 15 - 20 minutes of extraction to preventchemical reactionsand loss of nutrients.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-09-19)

Cucumber Juice (Cucumis Sativus) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Beauty / Cosmetics

Cucumber Juice (Cucumis Sativus)BEAUTY / COSMETICS The Cucumber Fruit Juice of this plant is used as a nutritive and as a demulcent in anti - acne lotions.

The sulfur content in Cucumbers facilitates to stimulate hair growth.

If you don't like to drink juice, it can be used for skin irritations and sunburns as Aloe would be used. Place a slice over puffy eyes and its anti - inflammatory properties helpreduce puffiness.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-09-19)

Cucumber Juice (Cucumis Sativus) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Medicine / Health

Cucumber Juice (Cucumis Sativus)MEDICINE / HEALTH
Cucumber Juice provides the body with a whole slew of minerals, hormones and compounds to fight disease. Silica helps to promote healthy joints, keeping you mobile for longer in life. Potassium and magnesium help to regulate blood pressure, protecting you from high and low readings. Meanwhile, the trifecta of lariciresinol, pinoresinol and secoisolariciresinol lignans reduce your risk of breast, ovarian and uterine cancers.

Because of their high water content, Cucumbers boost your body's hydration, flushing toxins, cooling the body, aiding in weight loss and assisting in digestion.

Cucumbers contain multiple B Vitamins, including Vitamin B1, Vitamin B5 and Vitamin B7 (biotin). B Vitamins are known to help ease feelings of anxiety and buffer some of the damaging effects of stress.

B Vitamin deficiencies often present themselves in the form of fatigue, irritability and poor concentration. Ensuring your body is in good supply of these Vitamins helps to alleviate the likelihood of such symptoms, making that morning caffeine fix so passe.

Drinking Cucumber Juice helps you reach your recommended daily intake of Vitamin K. This Vitamin helps you build strong bone tissue and nourishes your kidneys. It also plays an important role in blood clotting - it activates proteins that trigger blood coagulation, so that you can stop bleeding after suffering tissue damage. Consuming Cucumber Juice helps to fight the effects of Vitamin K deficiency, which can include nosebleeds, bruising and bleeding gums.

Cucumber Juice serves as a vegan - friendly source of calcium, an essential mineral. Hydroxyapatite, the mineral tissue that adds strength to your teeth and bones, contains calcium, and getting enough calcium helps retain your bone density.

Placing a Cucumber slice on the roof of your mouth may help to rid your mouth of odor - causingbacteria. According to the principles of Ayurveda, eating Cucumbers may also help to release excess heat in your stomach, which is said to be a primary cause of bad breath.

Cucumber Juice is required by the cells of the exocrine gland for manufacturinghypoglycemic agent which is found to be helpful for diabetic patients. Researchers have found that a compound referred to as sterols in Cucumbers can cut back steroid alcohol levels. Cucumber contains lots of potassium andfibers. This works effectively for maintaining regular vital signs. This makes cucumbers a good choice for treating low and high vital signs.

Cucumber Juice is also beneficial for people with teeth and gums problems, especially in cases of pyorrhea. Cucumber is a good source of dietary fiber and this fiber massage in the teeth and gums.

Cucumber juice is slightly mild laxative.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-09-19)

Cucumber Juice (Cucumis Sativus) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Cucumber Juice (Cucumis Sativus)BASE / GENERAL
Cucumbers are made up of 95 percent water, making them an ideal hydratingandcooling food.

Cucumber Juice comes from Cucumber, an ediblevegetable. Cucumber belongs to the Melon family, which includes the Watermelon, Squash and Zucchini, which means eating them on a hot summer day can help you stay hydrated.

Cucumbers make an ideal base for your vegetable juice due to theirmild flavor andhigh Water content.

As the fourth-most widely cultivated "vegetable" in the world (Cucumbers are technically a fruit), Cucumbers are widely available, but seek to get them from a local farmer's market if you can.

Even better, Cucumbers are very easy to grow, even if you only have access to a patio. They thrive in containers (provide they have somewhere to climb on) and produce ample produce from a small number of plants, so you could try your hand at growing them yourself.

Cucumber plants naturally thrive in both temperate and tropical environments, and generally require temperatures between 60-90°F / 15-33°C. For this reason, they are native to many regions of the world.

In evolutionary terms, the first Cucumbers were likely to have originated in Western Asia (and perhaps more specifically in India) or parts of the Middle East. Cucumbers are mentioned in the legend of Gilgamesh - a Uruk king who lived around 2500 BC in what is now Iraq and Kuwait.

It was approximately 3,300 years later when Cucumber cultivation spread to parts of Europe, including France. And it was not until the time of the European colonists that cucumbers finally appeared in North America in the 1500. 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-09-15)

Clove Bud Essential Oil (Eugenia Caryophyllata) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Clove Bud Essential Oil (Eugenia Caryophyllata)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Eugenia caryophyllata

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distillation

Part Typically Used:
Flower bud and stem

Color: Golden Yellow / Brown

Consistency: Medium, slightly oily

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Penetrating aroma that is rich, warm, spicy with a fruity top note and a woody base note.

are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia. Cloves are commercially harvested primarily in Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.

Until modern times, Cloves buds grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands), including Bacan, Makian, Moti, Ternate, and Tidore.

The Clove tree is an evergreen tree that grows up to 8-12 m tall, with large leaves and sanguine flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested at 1,5 - 2,0 cm long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals that form a small central ball.

Once the fragrant Clove buds have been dried, they are steam distilled in order to obtain the essential oil. Clove essential oil can be obtained from either the bud or the leaves. The leaves contain a higher concentration of Eugenol.

Clove comes from a Latin word "Clavus" meaning "Nail".

Archeologists have found Cloves in a ceramic vessel in Syria, with evidence that dates the find to within a few years of 1721 BCE.

Cloves were traded by Muslim sailors and merchants during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade, the Clove trade is also mentioned by Ibn Battuta and even famous Arabian Nights characters such as Sinbad the Sailor are known to have bought and sold Cloves from India.

In fact, the Clove tree that experts believe is the oldest in the world, named Afo, is on Ternate. The tree is between 350 and 400 years old.

Chemical strucuture:

Eugenol comprises 72-90% of the essential oil extracted from Cloves, and is the compound most responsible for Clove aroma.

Other important essential oilconstituents of Clove oil include acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and vanillin, crategolic acid, tannins such as bicornin, gallotannic acid, methyl salicylate (painkiller), the flavonoids eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin and eugenitin, triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and campesterol and several sesquiterpenes.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-07-30)

Musk Rose Oil (Rosa Moschata) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Musk Rose Oil (Rosa Moschata)BASE / GENERAL
Rosa Moschata (Musk Rose) is a species of Rose long in cultivation. Its wild origins are uncertain but are suspected to lie in the western Himalayas.

Rose Moschata is a shrub (to 3m) with single white 5 cm flowers in a loose cyme or corymb, blooming on new growth from late spring until late autumn in warm climates, or from late summer onwards in cool - summer climates. The sepals are 2 cm long with slender points. The flowers have a characteristic "Musky" scent, emanating from the stamens, which is also found in some of its descendants.

Rosa Moschata (Musk Rose) is a species of rose native to Europe or Asia, it is now grown in Chile in rainy and cold climates.

Rosa Moschata is native to the areas Chile and Argentina. However, it is this from southern Chile, as it grows in demanding climates, unspoilt, clean, wet wilds of Patagonia, due to it's chemical composition and properties of regeneration is considered as the best raw material for the production of oil Rosa Mosqueta (Rose Hip Oil).

It has been contended that no truly wild examples of the Musk Rose have been found, though it is recorded in cultivation as least as far back as the 16th century.

Chemical strucutre :

Natural oil from the seeds of wild Musk Rose contains transretinoic acid, omega - 6, omega - 3 and Vitamin A.

This oil is very rich in Vitamins A, C, E, B1 and B2 and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega - 6 and omega - 3, accompanied by a high concentration of natural antioxidants, such as Vitamin E and Beta - Carotene.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-07-10)

Chinese Cassia Essential Oil (Cinnamomum Cassia) ☸ Essential oils ☸ Base / General

Chinese Cassia Essential Oil (Cinnamomum Cassia)BASE / GENERAL
Botanical Name: Cinnamomum cassia

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distilled

Part Typically Used:
Bark and leaf

Light golden yellow to golden yellow

Consistency: Medium

Perfumery Note:

Strength of Initial Aroma:
Warm pungent smell.

Cinnamomum cassia
, called Chinese Cassia or Chinese Cinnamon, is an evergreen tree originating in southern China, and widely cultivated there and elsewhere in southern and eastern Asia (India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam).

The tree grows to 10-15 m tall, with greyish bark and hard, elongated leaves that are 10-15 cm long and have a decidedly reddish colour when young.

It is one of several species of Cinnamomum used primarily for their aromatic bark, which is used as a spice.

Chinese Cassia is a close relative to Ceylon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Verum), Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Loureiroi, also known as "Vietnamese Cinnamon"), and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Burmannii). In all four species, the dried bark is used as a spice. Chinese Cassia's flavour is less delicate than that of Ceylon Cinnamon. Its bark is thicker, more difficult to crush, and has a rougher texture than that of Ceylon Cinnamon.

Evidently originating in China, now widely cultivated in tropical or subtropical areas of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, and Yunnan.

When the trees are six to eight years old, the bark is removed in long strips and left to dry in the hot sun. These strips roll up into tubes, the "quills" familiar as the culinary spice. An inner corky layer is stripped for Cinnamon, but is left in place with Cassia, which is redder in colour, often chipped, and more coarsely pungent than Cinnamon. To give the bark time to grow again, it is removed about every two years, and it is said that a good tree can produce for almost 200 years.

The dried bark is the source of the important spice Cassia. The immature fruits are a source of Cassia buds. An essential oil, called oil of Cassia or oil of Cinnamon, is obtained by steam distillation of the leaves, twigs and bark. It is used as a flavoring agent.

The consistency of Cassia is thicker, and it is less subtle and aromatic the another Cinnamomum speaces.

Cinnamon was utilized extensively thousands of years ago and is still popular today. Enjoyed since ancient times, Cinnamon was mentioned in ancient Egyptian texts, the Bible, and was widely traded thousands of years ago in Europe and in Asia by Arab spice traders.

Cinnamomum appears in recorded history dating back to at least 1,700 years B.C.E where it was a component of embalming fluid in ancient Egypt.

The spice is mentioned in the Bible under the name of "Quesiah". In Exodus, God told Moses to take Myrrh, Cinnamon, Olive oil and bulrushes with him from Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians were known to have used it to keep epidemics at bay, and in embalming.

Chemical structure:

The principal constituents: Cinnamon - cinnamic aldehyde (60-65%), caryophyllene, cymene, eugenol, linalool, methylamine ketone which gives the characteristic aroma, phellandrene, pineneand many others. Cassia contains a higher proportion of cinnamic aldehyde, as much as 80 - 85%.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-07-01)

Andiroba Oil (Carapa Guianensis) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Andiroba Oil (Carapa Guianensis)BASE / GENERAL
Carapa Guianensis is a genus of flowering plants in the mahogany family, Meliaceae. These are trees up to 30 meters tall occurring in tropical South America, Central America and Africa. Common names include Andiroba and Crabwood.

In the Amazon rainforest region, Andiroba oil is an herbal oil that is widely used by the local population to treat several inflammatory diseases.

The tree grows in the Amazon region, Central America and the Caribbean. It is a tall tree with dense foliage, which usually grows in the tropical rain forest along the edge of rivers. The wood resembles mahogany and is used in quality furniture.

From the seeds is derived a plant oil which have medicinal properties.

The name andiroba is from Nheengatu nhandi rob, meaning "Bitter oil". Carapa Guianensis producesoil similar to Neem oil.

Andiroba oil is extracted from light brown seeds collected from beaches and rivers, where they float after being shed by the trees or from the forest ground.

The oil contained in the Andiroba almond is light yellow and extremely bitter. When subjected to a temperature below 25 °C, solidifies, leaving consistency like that of petroleum jelly. Contains substances likeolein, palmitine and the Glycerin.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-30)

Stinging Nettle Plant (Urtica Incisa) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Stinging Nettle Plant (Urtica Incisa)BASE / GENERAL
The Nettle family are also host plants for the Yellow Admiral caterpillars. There are many kinds of Nettles  30 - 45 species, although not every plant with "Nettle" in the name is from the Nettle family, Urtica.

Urtica Incisa, commonly called scrub Nettle, Stinging Nettle, and Tall Nettle, is an up - right perennial herbnative to streams and rainforest of eastern and southern Australia, from the north - east southwards through the east, of Queensland and New South Wales, then across the south, through Victoria, Tasmania, south-eastern South Australia and parts of southern Western Australia.

Scrub Nettle leaves are triangular and opposite, 5 - 12 cm long, with serrated margins and stinging hairs.

Height variously reported between 40cm and 2m. Leaves 5 - 12 cm. Likes shade or mild sun and a sheltered spot.

These soft herbs occur as weeds in damp areas and are sparsely covered with rigid, stinging hairs. The leaves are opposite to each other on the stem and have serrated margins.

The two species are very similar but the leaves of the perennial Stinging Nettle (Urtica Incisa) are tapered into a point, whereas the annual small Singing Nettle (Urtica Urens) has a more rounded tip. The flowers are small and greenish in colour. The fruit are minute, seed - like and enclosed in the flower parts.

Contact with the stinging hairs can result in local reddening and itching, swelling and an intense burning sensation. These symptoms are usually of short duration but may last up to 36 hours in sensitive individual.

Nettke is an annual plant. Germinates from autumn to spring. Flowers July to December. Nettle reproduction is by seed.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-30)

Vitamin E Oil (D-alpha Tocopherol) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Vitamin E Oil (D-alpha Tocopherol)BASE / GENERAL
Vitamin E is a Vitamin that dissolves in fat. It is found in many foods including vegetable oils, cereals, meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and wheat Germ oil. It is also available as a supplement.

Vitamin E was discovered in 1922 by Herbert McLean Evans and Katharine Scott Bishop and first isolated in a pure form by Gladys Anderson Emerson in 1935 at the University of California, Berkeley. Erhard Fernholz elucidated its structure in 1938 and shortly afterwards the same year, Paul Karrer and his team first synthesized it.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol) activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was given the name "Tocopherol" from the Greek words "Tókos", birth, and "Phérein", to bear or carry meaning in sum "to Carry a Pregnancy", with the ending "-ol" signifying its status as a chemical alcohol.

The first use for Vitamin E as a therapeutic agent was conducted in 1938 by Widenbauer, who used wheat Germ oil supplement on 17 premature newborn infants suffering from growth failure.

Vitamin E oil is obtained by vacuum distillation of vegetable fats derived from non-GMO Soy, Wheat Germ sources.

Naturally occurring Vitamin E exists in eight chemical forms (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-Tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta - Tocotrienol) that have varying levels of biologicalactivity.

Alpha- (or α-) Tocopherol is the only form that is recognized to meet human requirements.

A natural D-Mixed Tocopherol which is a mixture of all the natural Vitamin E isomers not just the alphatocopherol. It offers a very good balance of suitability for use as a skin conditioning agent and also as an antioxidant in oil phase products.

Chemical structure:

Total Tocopherol Content (Mixed): 18 - 20%
D Alpha Tocopherol: 9 -10%
D Beta and Gamma Tocopherol: 49 - 53%
D Delta Tocopherol: 38 - 42%
Sterols: 9,5%
Squalene: 4,7%
Monoglycerides: 19,5%

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-30)

Andiroba Oil (Carapa Guianensis) ☸ Base oils ☸ Medicine / Health

Andiroba Oil (Carapa Guianensis)MEDICINE / HEALTH
Andiroba oil is an anti-inflammatory oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids that promote skin healing from cuts and may slow the growth of skin cells in psoriasis and age spots.

It promotes normalcirculation to the skin and relieves pain and swelling. Andiroba oil is used in heated massage to relieve arthritis.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-30)

Menthol Crystals ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Menthol CrystalsBASE / GENERAL
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from Corn Mint, Peppermint or other Mint oils. It is a waxy, crystallinesubstance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above.

Menthol is the solid constituent of oil of Mint, to which the characteristic odor is due. Menthol is obtained by subjecting the distilled oil to a temperature of - 22ºC by aid of a freezing mixture. The Menthol crystallizes out in satiny Crystals.

They dissolve readily into alcohol or essential oils, and they can be dissolved into water or oil at their melting point of 18 C.

Menthol Crystals are cooling, refreshing, and have a pleasantly strong Minty aroma.

Since Menthol Crystals are so concentrated, only a very small amount is needed within products.

They are often used in cosmetics, salves, balms, medicated creams, throat lozenges, toothpaste, mouthwash, gum, foot sprays, pain relief, shampoos, conditioners, ointments, shaving creams, oral or throat sprays, compresses, medicated oils, and cooling gels.

Mentha Arvensis is the primary species of Mint used to make natural Menthol Crystals and natural Menthol Flakes. This species is primarily grown in the Uttar Pradesh region in India.

There is evidence  that Menthol has been known in Japan for more than 2000 years, but in the West it was not isolated until 1771, by Hieronymus David Gaubius.

Crystal size
- 1 / 4 - 3 / 8 inch shards.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-25)

Camphor Crystals (Cinnamomum Camphora) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Camphor Crystals (Cinnamomum Camphora)BASE / GENERAL
Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aromatic odor. It is a Terpenoid with the chemical formula C10H16O.

It is found in the wood of the Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum Camphora), a large evergreen tree found in Asia (Sumatra, Indonesia and Borneo ) and also of the unrelated Kapur tree, a tall timber tree from the same region.

It also occurs in some other related trees in the Laurel family, notably Ocotea Usambarensis. Dried Rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus Officinalis), in the Mint family, contain up to 20% Camphor.

It is used for its scent, as an ingredient in cooking (mainly in India), as an embalming fluid, for medicinal purposes, and in religious ceremonies. A major source of Camphor in Asia is Camphor Basil.

Camphor can also be synthetically produced from oil of turpentine, but we will talk about organic camphor ( Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum Camphora)).

These plants are literally taking energy produced by the sun, combining it with oxygen, and producing miraculous pharmacological wonders.

The clippings, roots and wood chips of the camphor tree are processed to produce Camphor Crystals and Camphor oil. The sturdy tree has glossy dark green aromatic leaves. The wood repels insects, moths, and is very durable against the erosion of salt air. In days gone by, the wood was used by sailors to moth - proof their clothes.

Camphor derived from a natural cold extraction process of the Camphor tree, these Crystals are not chemicallyproduced.

The word "Camphor" derives from the French word "Camphre", itself from Medieval Latin "Camfora", from Arabic "Kafur", from Sanskrit "Karpūram".

The term ultimately was derived from Old Malay Kapur Barus which means "the Chalk of Barus". Barus was the name of an ancient port located near modern Sibolga city on the western coast of Sumatra island (North Sumatra Province, Indonesia). This port was initially built prior to the Indian - Batak trade in Camphor and spices.

Traders from India, East Asia and the Middle East would use the term Kapur Barus to buy the dried extracted ooze of Camphor trees from local Batak tribesmen. The Camphor tree itself is natively found in that region. In the proto - Malay - Austronesian language, it is also known as Kapur Barus. Even now, the localtribespeople and Indonesians in general refer to naphthalene balls and moth balls as Kapur Barus.

Camphor is widely used in Hindu religious ceremonies. Hindus worship a holy flame by burning Camphor, which forms an important part of manyreligious ceremonies.

Camphor is used in the Mahashivratri celebrations of Shiva, the Hindu god of destruction and (re)creation. As a natural pitch substance, it burns cool without leaving an ash residue, which symbolizes consciousness.

Chemical structure:

Chemical wise, the plant that produces this constituent is chalked full of volatile chemical compounds that make the plant valuable for human beings (ethnobotany).

Volatile is a term that desribes compounds that can be vaporized. This tree contains Camphor, linalool, 1,8 - cineole, nerolidol, safrole, and borneol. Safrole is also present in Sassafrass root.

Camphor is one of the mainly prized compounds present in the species. It is a white crystalline substance that has a history of use as a medicine and holy incense

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-25)

Maple Syrup ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Maple Syrup is a Syrup usually made from the Xylem Sap of Sugar Maple, Red Maple, or Black Maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.

Three species of maple trees are predominantly used to produce Maple Syrup: the Sugar Maple (Acer Saccharum), the Black Maple (Acer Nigrum), and the Red Maple (Acer Rubrum), because of the high sugar content (roughly 2 - 5%) in the sap of these species.

The Black Maple is included as a subspecies or variety in a more broadly viewed concept of Acer saccharum, the sugar Maple, by some botanists. Of these, the Red Maple has a shorter season because it buds earlier than sugar and Black Maples, which alters the flavour of the sap.

The Canadian province of Quebec is by far the largest producer, responsible for about three - quarters of the world's output.

is the largest producer in the United States, generating about 5,5% of the global supply.

In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before the winter, the starch is then converted to sugar that rises in the sap in the spring.

Maple trees can be tapped by boring holes into their trunks and collecting the exuded sap. The sap is processed by heating to evaporate much of the water, leaving the concentrated Syrup.

In Canada, syrups must be at least 66% sugar and be made exclusively from Maple sap to qualify as Maple Syrup. In the United States, a syrup must be made almost entirely from maple sap to be labelled as "Maple".

Maple Syrup was first collected and used by the indigenous peoples of North America. The practice was adopted by European settlers, who gradually refined production methods. The Canadian province of Quebec is by far the largest producer, responsible for about three - quarters of the world's output.

Indigenous peoples living in the northeastern part of North America were the first groups known to have produced Maple Syrup and Maple sugar. According to aboriginal oral traditions, as well as archaeological evidence, Maple tree sap was being processed into syrup long before Europeans arrived in the region.

The Algonquians recognized Maple sap as a source of energy and nutrition. At the beginning of the spring thaw, they used stone tools to make V - shaped incisions in tree trunks. They then inserted reeds or concave pieces of bark to run the sap into buckets, which were often made from birch bark. The Maple sap was concentrated either by dropping hot cooking stones into the buckets or by leaving them exposed to the cold temperatures overnight and disposing of the layer of ice that formed on top.

Aboriginal tribes developed rituals around sugar - making, celebrating the Sugar Moon (the first full moon of spring) with a Maple Dance.

Maples are usually tapped beginning at 30 to 40 years of age. Each tree can support between one and three taps, depending on its trunk diameter. The average maple tree will produce 35 to 50 litres of sap per season, up to 12 litres per day.

Maples can continue to be tapped for sap until they are over 100 years old.

Chemical structure:

It consists primarily of Sucrose and Water, with small amounts of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose from the invert sugar created in the boiling process.Accordingly, sugars comprise 90% of total carbohydrates which contribute nearly all of the 261 calories per 100 g.

Maple Syrup generally is devoid of micronutrient content , excepting appreciable amounts of zinc and manganese which contribute 44% and 157% of the Daily Value, respectively, per 100 g.

100 grams of Maple Syrup contain:

: 7%
Potassium: 6%
Iron: 7%
Zinc: 28%
Manganese: 165%

Maple Syrup
also contains trace amounts of amino acids which increase in content as sap flow occurs. Additionally, Maple Syrup contains a wide variety of volatile organic compounds, including Vanillin, hydroxybutanone, and propionaldehyde.

It is not yet known exactly what compounds are responsible for Maple Syrup's distinctive flavour, however its primary flavour contributing compounds are Maple furanone, Strawberry furanone, and Maltol

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-23)

Coconut Water (Cocos Nucifera) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Coconut Water (Cocos Nucifera)BASE / GENERAL
Naturally refreshing, Coconut Water has a sweet, nutty taste. Not to be confused withhigh - fat Coconut Milk or oil, Coconut Water is a clear liquid in the fruit’s center.

Coconut Water is the clear liquid inside young green Coconuts. In early development, it serves as a suspension for the endosperm of the Coconut during the nuclear phase of development. As growth continues, the endosperm matures into its cellular phase and deposits into the rind of the Coconut Meat.

Fresh Coconuts are typically harvested from the tree while they are green. A hole may be bored into the Coconut to provide access to the liquid and meat. In young Coconuts, the liquid and air may be under some pressure and may spray slightly when the inner husk is first penetrated.

In general, young and slightly immature Coconuts gathered from the Coconut tree after they reach about 5 - 7 months of age for the purpose of reaping its drink. Coconuts which have fallen to the ground are susceptible to rot and damage from insects or animals.

Each Coconut may contain about 200 to 1000 ml of water depending upon cultivar type and size. Any nuts younger than five months of age tend to be bitter in taste and devoid of nutrients.

Coconut Water has long been a popular drink in the tropical countries where it is available fresh, canned, or bottled.

Naturally refreshing, Coconut Water has a sweet, nutty taste. Not to be confused with high - fat coconut milk or oil, Coconut water is a clear liquid in the fruit’s center.

At home, raw tender Coconuts can be kept at room temperature for about 5 - 10 days. Once opened, its liquid soon turns sour and off - flavored due to intense enzymaticactivity. Instead, store it inside the refrigerator if not used immediately.

Chemical structure:

The water is actually obtained by opening a tender, green, healthy, and undamaged Coconut. Inside, it's clear liquid is sweet, and sterile and composed of unique chemicals such as sugars, Vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, enzymes, amino acids, cytokine, and phyto - hormones.

Coconut Water carries a very good amount of electrolyte potassium. 100 ml of Water has 250 mg of potassium and 105 mg of sodium. Together, these electrolytes help replenish electrolyte deficiency in the body due todiarrhea (loose stools).

Further, fresh Coconut Water has a small amount of Vitamin - C (Ascorbic acid). It provides about 2,4 mg or 4% of RDA. Vitamin C is a water  - soluble ant-oxidant.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-23)

Olive Squalane ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Olive SqualaneBASE / GENERAL
Olive Squalane is a high purity vegetable squalane obtained from Olives. Olive Squalane is a botanical lipid that mirrors human lipids in molecular structure and weight (scientists found that the skin's sebaceous glands synthesized approximately 10 - 12% Squalane). The Olive Squalane is the plant - derived alternative to the animal - derived (shark liver oil) of the past.

Squalene is found naturally in thesebum of human skin and is believed to lubricate and protect skin.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-23)

Olive Squalane ☸ Ingredients ☸ Beauty / Cosmetics

This valuable lipid is extremely compatible with the skin and is safe for all skin types, making it a great choice for regenerative skin care, and anti-agingproducts.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-23)

Amaranth Seed Oil (Amaranthus Caudatus) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Amaranth Seed Oil (Amaranthus Caudatus)BASE / GENERAL
Amaranthus, collectively known as Amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short lived perennial plants. Amaranth is grown in Asia and the Americas and harvested primarily for its grain, which is used as a food source forbread, pasta, and infant food.

seed is called a grain by many, but technically it isn’t a truegrain. Amaranth tastes similar to other grains, and is used in much the same way. Quinoa is also in the Amaranthaceae family, and is also a pseudograin.

Catkin - like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. Approximately 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple and red to green or gold. Members of thisgenus share many characteristics and uses with members of the closely related genus Celosia.

However, there are several other Amaranthus that are grown in other places of the world, that are used as food, both for the leaves and the seed.

Grain Amaranths produces a protein - rich seed. Each seed is only about 1/2 or 1/3 the size of a Quinoa seed, but each plant can produce up to 100,000 seeds or more, and they are easy to harvest.

Seeds from wild varieties are black, and seeds from the cultivated varieties are lighter in color (white, light brown, and pinkish - red seeds). Amaranth seems to be enjoying a slight rise in popularity.

"Amaranth" derives from Greek (Amarantos), "Unfading" with the Greek word for "Flower"(Anthos), factoring into the word's development as "Amaranth." The more accurate "Amarant" is an archaic variant.

Conventional, organic. Symbol of immortality in Greek, Amaranth is the oldest cultivated plant reputed never to fade. Obtained from Amaranth seeds. Contains Over 60% of unsaturated acids. Mainly composed of linoleic acid (omega-6) and oleic acid (omega-9). High content in Squalane.

The oil we use has been obtained via the latest and arguably most efficient method of extraction - Supercritical CO2 Carbon Dioxide which has been pressurised until it has become "Supercritical" (in two states - gas and liquid properties at the same time) is passed through the plant material acting like a solvent pushing out all of the raw active agents.

Once all of the constituents have been extractedthe pressure is released, the Carbon Dioxide becomes gas again leaving no trace, and you’re left with a complex extract including many particles you wouldn’t get through steam distillation.

Chemical structure:

Amaranth oil is a great of value. It contains about 77 % of non - saturated fatty acids (about 50 % of linolenic and linoleic acids, squalene and Vitamin E in the rare form of tocotriene which takes part in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.

Most importantly it is an almost unique extract in that is has up to 12% Squalene content.

Fatty oil with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids including 25 - 35% oleic acid and 42-52% linoleic acid as well as a 6 - 12% Squalene content.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-22)

Matcha Tea Whisk (Chasen) ☸ Tools ☸ Base / General

Matcha Tea Whisk (Chasen)BASE / GENERAL
Chasen are bamboo Whisks used to prepare Matcha. They are hand - carved from a single piece of bamboo.

There are differences in their style according to the type of bamboo they are made from, the shape of the tines, the number of tines, the thickness of the bamboo, the length of the bamboo, the color of the thread that is woven around the bottom of the tines, and so on.

Different schools of Chanoyu prefer different styles and employ different styles depending on the particular kind of tea or tea - preparation stylefor which it is to be used.

For instance, there are specific styles for preparing Thin tea (Usucha), Thick tea (Koicha), tea offerings in tenmoku tea bowls, tea in tall cylindrical tea bowls, for including in a portable boxed tea set (Chabako), for outdoor tea - making, for New Year's, and for other special auspicious occasions.

Also, there are styles such as the "Rikyū-gata"  the style attributed to Sen Rikyū's son Dōan and referred to as the "Dōan-gonomi" style, and other such "favored"  (Konomi) styles of famous tea masters, so that the styles have continued to increase.

Generally, the kind used for whisking thin tea (Usucha) has 80, 100, or 120 fine tines.

In the Japanese tea ceremony, it is recommended to use a new Chasen on each occasion. However, for casual tea drinkers like ourselves, it is much moreeconomicalto reuse.

A small amount of Matcha is placed into the bowl, traditionally using abamboo scoop called a Chashaku, and then a modicum of hot (not boiling: 70–85 °C) water is added. The mixture is then whisked to a uniform consistency, using a bamboo whisk known as a "Chasen".

Taking care of whisk:

The first thing you will need is a Whisk keeper. Store your Chasen on this device. It will help the bambootines keep their shape, prolonging its lifespan.

Secondly, clean it after each use. Make sure it isn’t in contact with moisture for long periods of time. The bamboo can easily grow mold on it otherwise.

Finally, be sure to inspect your chasen before each use for broken tines. More for your own safety, remove any broken parts before whisking.

A brand new Chasen will have a core that is twisted around, and tines that curl up at the end. However, after a few uses, the tines will straighten out, and the core will bloom. This is to be expected. 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-22)

Perilla Seed Oil (Perilla Frutescens) ☸ Base oils ☸ Base / General

Perilla Seed Oil (Perilla Frutescens) BASE / GENERAL
Perilla is an herb of the mint family, Lamiaceae. Though known to several cultures by different names, the disparate varieties are now classified under the single species Perilla Frutescens.

Perilla Frutescens the aromatic leafy herb called by its Korean name Jasoyup, its Japanese name Shiso, which in turn is a loan word from Chinese: Pinyin, Zĭsū, Wade - Giles: Tsu-su.

The plant occurs in red (purple - leaved) or green - leaved forms. It also has a less fashionable translated name "Beefsteak Plant", but starting around the 1980, with the rise of popularity of Japanese cuisine, it has become increasingly more chic for the mass media to refer to it as Shiso.

Suggested native origins are mountainous terrains of India and China, although some books say Southeast Asia.

Perilla oil is obtained from the seeds of herbs of the genus Perilla, usually from the species Perilla Frutescens. The seeds contain 35 to 45% oil which is obtained by pressing.

In parts of Asia, Perilla oil is used as an edible oil that is valued more for its medicinal benefit than its flavor. The Perilla was introduced into Japan around the 8th to 9th century.

Until around the Sengoku period (early 16th century) in Japan, Perilla oil was important for fueling oil lamps, until being was overtaken by Rapeseed oil.

Perilla oil also is important in the manufacture of printing inksand linoleum, and in more ancient times was a critical component in creating durable earthen floors.

Chemical structure:

Perilla oil
is a very rich source of the omega - 3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. About 50 to 60% of the oil consists of acid alpha - linolenic.

In terms of dietary compounds in the plant, the pronounced flavor and aroma of Shiso derives from Perillaldehyde, but this substance is lacking in the perilla variety.

Other aromatic essential oils present are limonene, caryophyllene, and farnesene.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-21)

Perilla Seed Oil (Perilla Frutescens) ☸ Base oils ☸ Food / Cooking

Perilla Seed Oil (Perilla Frutescens) FOOD / COOKING
Korean cuisine uses green leaves of the oilseed variety, which have a flavor different from Shiso. It also uses the Perilla seeds, known as "Wild Sesame", a source of Perilla oil rich inacid alpha-linolenicomega - 3 fatty acids.

The flowers, fruits, and seeds of Shiso are used as a condiment or spice in Japan.

In Korea, Perilla is mainly cultivated in Chungcheong, Gyeongsang, and Jeolla Province, so the locals there often consume Perilla oil.

In Korean cuisine, it is used for marinating namul (seasoned vegetable dish), coating grilled gim (Korean laver), or pan - Frying Jeon (Pancake-like dish), where it is called deul Gireum or Beopyu in Korean. In North Korea, it is called Deulkkae Gireum.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-21)

Perilla Seed Oil (Perilla Frutescens) ☸ Base oils ☸ Medicine / Health

Perilla Seed Oil (Perilla Frutescens) MEDICINE / HEALTH
Perilla is called Zisu in Chinese and is traditionally used in Chinese medicine, and has been shown to stimulate interferon activity and thus, the body's immune system.

It is fried in oil with Garlic or Ginger in the wok, and eaten as a dish with meals. The in its name (formed by addition of the herb radical to a homophone meaning "Revive") was the namesake for Mount Gusu, the peak which gave Suzhou its name. The Manchu people's festival of "Food Extermination Day"  calls for Perilla to be eaten by bannermen.

It is used to ease the symptoms of the common cold.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-21)

Ground Ceylon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Ground Ceylon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum)BASE / GENERAL
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae.

The English word Cinnamon, attested in English since the 15th century, derives from the Greek  Kinnámōmon (later Kínnamon), via Latin and medieval French intermediate forms. The Greek in turn was borrowed from a Phoenician word, which would have been akin to the related Hebrew Qinnamon.

Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade, to protect their monopoly as suppliers, Cinnamon is native to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, the Malabar Coast of India, and Burma.

The old botanical synonym for the tree - Cinnamomum Zeylanicum - is derived from Sri Lanka's former name, Ceylon. Sri Lanka still produces 80 - 90% of the world's supply of Cinnamomum Verum, and it is also cultivated on a commercial scale in Seychelles and Madagascar.

Cinnamomum Verum (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum), called "True Cinnamon tree" or Ceylon Cinnamon tree is a small evergreen tree, native to Sri Lanka. Among other species, its inner bark is used to make Cinnamon.

Cinnamon was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god.

rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa , where local traders then carried it north to Alexandria in Egypt. Venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.

When Portuguese traders landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), they restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. They established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected Ceylon as their cinnamon monopoly for over a hundred years. Later, Sinhalese held the monopoly for Cinnamon in Ceylon.

Now  Sri Lanka produces 80 - 90% of the world's supply of Cinnamomum Verum, but that is the only species grown there. Cinnamomum verum is also cultivated on a commercial scale in Seychelles and Madagascar.

Sri Lanka Cinnamon has a very thin, smooth bark with a light - yellowish brown colour and a highly fragrant aroma.

CeylonCcinnamon, using only the thin inner bark, has a lighter brown colour, a finer, less dense and more crumbly texture, and is considered to be subtler and more aromatic in flavour than cassia (Cinnamomum  cassia), losing much of its flavour during cooking. Ceylon Cinnamon sticks (quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder, whereas Cassia sticks are much harder.

In the case of stick Cinnamon there are also certain features of the sticks you might want to look for in order to determine whether your Cinnamon is Ceylon Cinnamon or Cassia Cinnamon. One of those features involves the texture of the sticks when you look downward at a stick so that you can see the end.

When Cinnamon sticks are rolled from the thick bark of the Cassia plants, they look exactly as described - a one - piece, thick bark layer that does not show multiple layers of any kind. In the case of Ceylon Cinnamon sticks, since the plant bark is thinner, you may be able to see multiple layers of a thinner bark. That thinner layering of bark is one indication that your Cinnamon sticks are made from Ceylon Cinnamon.

Another feature is the typically darker and deeper reddish color shade of Ceylon Cinnamon sticks. Finally, the thicker and harder bark of Cassia - type cinnamon sticks often prevents them from having small pieces that have broken off, where Ceylon Cinnamon is more fragile and easily broken.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-17)

Ghee (Clarified Butter) ☸ Ingredients ☸ Base / General

Ghee (Clarified Butter)BASE / GENERAL
Ghee is a class of Clarified Butter that originated in ancient India and is commonly used in South Asian and Iranian cuisines, traditionalmedicine, and religious rituals.

Clarified Butter is milk fat rendered from Butter to separate the milk solids and water from the butterfat. Typically, it is produced by melting Butter and allowing the components to separate by density. The Water evaporates, some solids float to the surface and are skimmed off, and the remainder of the milk solids sink to the bottom and are left behind when the butter fat (which would then be on top) is poured off.

Traditionally, Ghee (Go-Ghṛta) is always made from the milk of cows, which are considered sacred, and it is a sacred requirement in Vedic Yajña and Homa (Fire Sacrifices), through the medium of Agni (Fire) to offer oblations to various deities.

The production of Ghee includes simmering the Butter along with the milk solids so that they caramelize, which makes it nutty - tasting and aromatic.

Ghee is prepared by simmering butter, which is churned from cream, and removing the liquid residue. Spices can be added for flavor. The texture, color, and taste of Ghee depend on the quality of the Butter, source of the milk used in the process and the duration of the boiling.

According to Ayurveda, Ghee is traditionally made in a way rather different than clarified butter. To make real ghee, one must obtain raw milk, then boil it, let it cool to 43 °C, and add Curd (Indian Yogurt) cultures. After letting it set, covered at room temperature for around 12 hours, the curd is then churned using ancient methods to obtain this specific type of cultured Butter. This Butter is finally used to simmer into Ghee.

Chemical structure:

Like any clarified butter, ghee is composed almost entirely of fat, 62% of which consists of saturated fats.

Fats and fatty acids per 100 g of ghee:

Total fat - 99,5 g
Saturated fat - 61,9 g
Monounsaturated fat - 28,7 g
Polyunsaturated fat - 3,7 g
Trans fats - 4 g
Omega-3 fatty acids - 1447 mg
Omega-6 fatty acids - 2247 mg

Non-fat nutrients  per 100 g of ghee:

Cholesterol - 256 mg (85%DV)
Vitamin A - 3069 IU (61% DV)
Vitamin E - 2,8 mg
Vitamin K - 8,6 µg 

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-16)

Dandelion Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Dandelion Plant (Taraxacum Officinale)BASE / GENERAL
Taraxacum Officinale, the Common Dandelion, is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. It can be found growing in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of water ways, and other areas with moist soils. Taraxacum Officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides.

Taraxacum Officinale is native to Eurasia and now is naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India.

Taraxacum Officinale
grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5 - 40 cm tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm tall. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal: each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. The fruits are mostly produced by apomixis.

The leaves are 5 - 45 cm long and 1 - 10 cm wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.

The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange -y ellow in color.

The fruits, called cypselae, range in color from olive-green or olive - brown to straw - colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2 - 3 mm long with slender beaks. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver - white in color and around 6 mm wide.

The name of the genus, Taraxacum, is derived from the Greek Taraxos (Disorder), and Akos (Remedy), on account of the curative action of the plant. A possible alternative derivation of Taraxacum is suggested in The Treasury of Botany:

"The generic name is possibly derived from the Greek Taraxo ("I have excited" or "Caused") and Achos (Pain), in allusion to themedicinal effects of the plant".

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-09)

Lemon Fruit (Citrus Limon) ☸ Plants ☸ Base / General

Lemon Fruit (Citrus Limon)BASE / GENERAL
A Lemon (Citrus Limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia.

The juice of the Lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, giving the fruit its distinctive, sour taste and making it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as Lemonade and Lemon meringue pie.

The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam (a region in northeast India), northern Burma, and China.

Citrus Limon is the leading acid citrus fruit, because of its very appealing color, odor and flavor. The true lemon tree reaches 10 to 20 feet in height and usually has sharp thorns on the twigs. Leaves are reddish when young, and become dark green above, light green below.

Mildly fragrant flowers may be solitary, or there may be two or more. Buds are reddish. Opened flowers have 4 or 5 petals, white on upper surface, purplish beneath.

Fruit is oval with a nipple - like protuberance and is light - yellow. It is aromatic, and dotted with oil glands.

The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century. The Lemon was later introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought Lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread Lemon seeds.

Jews entered Europe near southern Italy no later than the first century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome. However, they were not widely cultivated. They were later introduced to Persia and then to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD.

The Lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th - century Arabic treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens. It was distributed widely throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-09)

Dandelion Plant (Taraxacum Officinale) ☸ Plants ☸ Medicine / Health

Dandelion Plant (Taraxacum Officinale)MEDICINE / HEALTH
The first mention of the Dandelion as a medicine is in the works of the Arabian Physicians of the tenth and eleventh centuries, who speak of it as a sort of wild Endive, under the name of Taraxcacon. In this country, we find allusion to it in the Welsh medicines of the thirteenth century. Dandelion was much valued as a medicine in the times of gerard and parkinson, and is still extensively employed.

Dandelion roots have long been largely used on the Continent, and the plant is cultivated largely in India as a remedy for liver complaints.

Submitted by OperaDreamhouse (2015-06-09)